Objective—To compare analgesia provided by carprofen and tramadol in dogs after enucleation.
Design—Randomized, masked clinical trial.
Procedures—Client-owned dogs admitted for routine enucleation were randomly assigned to receive either carprofen or tramadol orally 2 hours prior to surgery and 12 hours after the first dose. Dogs were scored for signs of pain at baseline (ie, before carprofen or tramadol administration) and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 30 hours after extubation. Dogs received identical premedication and inhalation anesthesia regimens, including premedication with hydromorphone. If the total pain score was ≥ 9 (maximum possible score of 20), there was a score ≥ 3 in any of 5 behavioral categories (highest score possible per category was 3 or 4), or the visual analog scale (VAS) score was ≥ 35 (maximum possible score of 100) combined with a palpation score > 0, rescue analgesia (hydromorphone) was administered and treatment failure was recorded.
Results—No differences were found in age, sex, or baseline pain scores between groups. Significantly more dogs receiving tramadol required rescue analgesia (6/21), compared with dogs receiving carprofen (1/22). Pain and VAS scores decreased linearly over time. No significant differences were found in pain or VAS scores between groups at any time point (dogs were excluded from analysis after rescue).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that carprofen, with opioid premedication, may provide more effective postoperative analgesia than tramadol in dogs undergoing enucleation.
Objective—To compare clinical findings and inflammatory mediator production among cats with sepsis, cats with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and healthy cats.
Animals—Cats with sepsis (n = 16) or SIRS (19) and 8 healthy control cats.
Procedures—Clinical variables were recorded for each cat, and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1β activities and IL-6 and CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-8 concentrations were determined at initial evaluation.
Results—Clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with sepsis in cats included a high band neutrophil percentage, eosinopenia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. When the sepsis and SIRS groups were compared, the only significant differences in the CBC and plasma biochemical findings were band neutrophil percentage and albumin concentration. Cats with sepsis had significantly greater plasma TNF activity than did healthy cats and were more likely to have detectable concentrations of IL-6 than were cats with SIRS or healthy cats. Plasma IL-1β activity did not differ among groups, and CXCL-8 was not detectable in most (32/43) cats. Mortality rate was not significantly greater for cats with sepsis (7/16) than for cats with SIRS (5/19). Plasma IL-1β activity and IL-6 and chloride concentrations were the only variables correlated with nonsurvival in the sepsis group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with sepsis may have various clinicopathologic abnormalities but are more likely to have a high band neutrophil percentage and hypoalbuminemia than cats with noninfectious SIRS. Plasma interleukin-1β activity and plasma IL-6 and chloride concentrations may be useful prognostic biomarkers for septic cats.