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- Author or Editor: Carolyne A. Tranquille x
- Bone, Joint, and Cartilage x
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Objective—To investigate effects of exercise on hyaline cartilage (HC), calcified cartilage (CC), and subchondral bone (SCB) thickness patterns of equine tarsi.
Sample Population—30 tarsi from cadavers of horses with known exercise history.
Procedures—Tarsi were assigned to 3 groups according to known exercise history as follows: pasture exercise only (PE tarsi), low-intensity general-purpose riding exercise (LE tarsi), and high-intensity elite competition riding exercise (EE tarsi). Osteochondral tissue from distal tarsal joints underwent histologic preparation. Hyaline cartilage, CC, and SCB thickness were measured at standard sites at medial, midline, and lateral locations across joints with a histomorphometric technique.
Results—HC, CC, and SCB thickness were significantly greater at all sites in EE tarsi, compared with PE tarsi; this was also true when LE tarsi were compared with PE tarsi. At specific sites, HC, CC, and SCB were significantly thicker in EE tarsi, compared with LE tarsi. Along the articular surface of the proximal aspect of the third metatarsal bone, SCB was thickest in EE tarsi and thinnest in LE tarsi; increases were greatest at sites previously reported to undergo peak strains and osteochondral damage.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased exercise was associated with increased HC, CC, and SCB thickness in mature horses. At sites that undergo high compressive strains, with a reported predisposition to osteoarthritic change, there was increased CC and SCB thickness. These results may provide insight into the interaction between adaptive response to exercise and pathological change.
Objective—To determine whether histopathologic characteristics of the osteochondral units of equine distal tarsal joints were associated with exercise history in horses without lameness.
Sample Population—30 cadaver tarsi from horses without lameness and with known exercise history were separated into 3 groups: nonridden, pasture exercise (group P); low-intensity, ridden exercise (group L); and high-intensity, elite competition exercise (group E).
Procedures—Standardized sites from the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints under went histologic preparation. A grading system was adapted to describe location, depth, and shape of lesions; cellular arrangement; organization at cartilage and subchondral bone (SCB) junctions; and organization of SCB. A high score signified a more severe pathological change than a low score. Exercise groups were compared by calculation of Spearman rank correlations.
Results—In the centrodistal joint, lesions were present in groups L and E but only medially. Cellular arrangement scores were higher at the dorsomedial location in group P than in groups L and E. Groups L and E had higher scores than group P for the organization of the cartilage, SCB junctions, and SCB, with higher scores at the dorsomedial location. In the tarsometatarsal joint, lesions were evident across the whole joint surface, with more severe lesions located laterally in all 3 groups. Overall, group E had higher scores for cellular arrangement and SCB organization than groups P and L.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ridden exercise may increase the risk of osteochondral lesions at distal tarsal sites predisposed to osteoarthritis relative to the risk with nonridden exercise.