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  • Author or Editor: Carolina H. Ricco Pereira x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of naloxone hydrochloride in dogs following intranasal (IN) and IV administration.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a blinded crossover design involving 2 experimental periods separated by a washout period (minimum of 7 days), dogs were randomly assigned to receive naloxone IN (4 mg via a commercially available fixed-dose naloxone atomizer; mean ± SD dose, 0.17 ± 0.02 mg/kg) or IV (0.04 mg/kg) in the first period and then the opposite treatment in the second period. Plasma naloxone concentrations, dog behavior, heart rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated for 24 hours/period.

RESULTS

Naloxone administered IN was well absorbed after a short lag time (mean ± SD, 2.3 ± 1.4 minutes). Mean maximum plasma concentration following IN and IV administration was 9.3 ± 2.5 ng/mL and 18.8 ± 3.9 ng/mL, respectively. Mean time to maximum concentration following IN administration was 22.5 ± 8.2 minutes. Mean terminal half-life after IN and IV administration was 47.4 ± 6.7 minutes and 37.0 ± 6.7 minutes, respectively. Mean bioavailability of naloxone administered IN was 32 ± 13%. There were no notable changes in dog behavior, heart rate, or respiratory rate following naloxone administration by either route.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of a naloxone atomizer for IN naloxone administration in dogs may represent an effective alternative to IV administration in emergency situations involving opioid exposure. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of IN naloxone administration in dogs with opioid intoxication, including a determination of effective doses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine administered via the oral transmucosal (OTM) route to healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

Injectable dexmedetomidine was administered IV (5 μg/kg) or via the OTM route (20 μg/kg) in a blinded, single-observer, randomized crossover study. Dogs received dexmedetomidine and a sham treatment at each administration. Serial blood samples were collected from a catheter in a saphenous vein. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and subjective sedation score were assessed for 24 hours after administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for dexmedetomidine concentrations by use of ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS

For the OTM route, the mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3 ng/mL, which was detected 73 ± 33 minutes after administration. The mean maximum concentration for the IV dose, when extrapolated to the time of administration, was 18.6 ± 3.3 ng/mL. The mean terminal-phase half-life was 152 ± 146 minutes and 36 ± 6 minutes for OTM and IV administration, respectively. After IV administration, total clearance was 8.0 ± 1.6 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution at steady state was 371 ± 72 mL/kg. Bioavailability for OTM administration of dexmedetomidine was 11.2 ± 4.5%. Peak sedation scores did not differ significantly between routes of administration. Decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate, and peak sedation score were evident sooner after IV administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

OTM administration of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine resulted in a similar degree of sedation and prolonged duration of action, compared with results for IV administration, despite relatively low bioavailability.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research