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  • Author or Editor: Carl A. Osborne x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with sodium chloride (NaCl) on urinary calcium excretion, urine calcium concentration, and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with calcium oxalate (CaOx).

Animals—6 adult female healthy Beagles.

Procedure—By use of a crossover study design, a canned diet designed to decrease CaOx urolith recurrence with and without supplemental NaCl (ie, 1.2% and 0.24% sodium on a dry-matter basis, respectively) was fed to dogs for 6 weeks. Every 14 days, 24- hour urine samples were collected. Concentrations of lithogenic substances and urine pH were used to calculate values of urinary RSS with CaOx.

Results—When dogs consumed a diet supplemented with NaCl, 24-hour urine volume and 24-hour urine calcium excretion increased. Dietary supplementation with NaCl was not associated with a change in urine calcium concentration. However, urine oxalate acid concentrations and values of urinary RSS with CaOx were significantly lower after feeding the NaCl-supplemented diet for 28 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary supplementation with NaCl in a urolith-prevention diet decreased the propensity for CaOx crystallization in the urine of healthy adult Beagles. However, until long-term studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation with NaCl in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis are preformed, we suggest that dietary supplementation with NaCl be used cautiously. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:319–324)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine proportional morbidity rates (PMR) and risk factors for lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD) in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Records of 22,908 cats with LUTD and 263,168 cats without LUTD.

Procedure—Data were retrieved from the Purdue Veterinary Medical Data Base. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess whether breed, age, sex, and neutering status were associated with different causes of LUTD.

Results—Mean PMR for LUTD irrespective of cause was 8/100 cats (range, 2 to 13/100 cats). Increased risk for urocystolithiasis (Russian Blue, Himalayan, and Persian cats), bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI; Abyssinian cats), congenital urinary tract defects (Manx and Persian cats), and urinary incontinence (Manx cats) was detected. Cats between 2 and < 7 years of age had increased risk for urethral plugs, neurogenic disorders, congenital defects, and iatrogenic injuries. Cats between 4 and < 10 years of age had increased risk for urocystolithiasis, urethral obstructions, and idiopathic LUTD. Cats ≥ 10 years of age had increased risk for UTI and neoplasia. Castrated males had increased risk for each cause of LUTD except UTI and incontinence. Spayed females had increased risk for urocystolithiasis, UTI, and neoplasia. Sexually intact females had decreased risk for each cause of LUTD except neurogenic disorders and iatrogenic injuries.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Specific breed, age, sex, and neutering status may be associated with specific types of feline LUTD. Knowledge of patient risk factors for LUTD may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that enhance earlier detection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1429–1435)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine hospital proportional morbidity rates (HPMR) for urethral obstructions, urethral plugs or urethroliths, and urethrostomies in cats in veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) in Canada and the United States between 1980 and 1999.

Design—Epidemiologic study.

Animals—305,672 cats evaluated at VTH.

Procedures—Yearly HPMR were determined for cats with urethral obstructions, urethral plugs or urethroliths, or urethrostomies from data compiled by the Purdue Veterinary Medical Database. The test for a linear trend in proportions was used.

Results—Urethral obstructions were reported in 4,683 cats. Yearly HPMR for urethral obstructions declined from 19 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 7 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999. Urethral plugs or urethroliths affected 1,460 cats. Yearly HPMR for urethral plugs or urethroliths decreased from 10 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 2 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999. A total of 2,359 urethrostomies were performed. Yearly HPMR for urethrostomies decreased from 13 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1980 to 4 cases/1,000 feline evaluations in 1999.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Frequency of feline urethrostomies performed at VTH in Canada and the United States declined during the past 20 years and paralleled a similar decline in frequency of urethral obstructions and urethral plugs or urethroliths. These trends coincide with widespread use of diets to minimize struvite crystalluria in cats, which is important because struvite has consistently been the predominant mineral in feline urethral plugs during this period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:502–505)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association