Objective—To measure volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations
and pH in the gastrointestinal tracts of
healthy adult cats fed a commercial dry cat food.
Procedure—The gastrointestinal tracts were excised
immediately after euthanasia and divided into 6 sections
(stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, proximal
portion of the colon, and distal portion of the colon).
Luminal contents were collected from each segment,
pH was measured, and contents were centrifuged.
The supernatant was analyzed for acetate, proprionate,
butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate, and isovalerate
concentrations by use of gas chromatography.
Results—Mean total VFA concentrations were lowest in
the stomach (20 mmol/L); increased through the duodenum,
jejunum, and ileum (30, 29, and 41 mmol/L, respectively);
and were greatest in the proximal and distal portions
of the colon (109 and 131 mmol/L, respectively).
Estimated mean total VFA amounts were low (< 600 μmol)
throughout all segments of the gastrointestinal tract; pH
values increased from the stomach through the ileum and
subsequently decreased in the colon.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Total VFA
concentrations in the colon were comparable to values
reported for the forestomach of ruminants and
large intestines of monogastric animals, whereas values
in the small intestine were higher than reported
for other species. Total VFA amounts were low, consistent
with the short, nonvoluminous gastrointestinal
tract of carnivores. Luminal pH varied throughout
the gastrointestinal tract in a pattern similar to other
monogastric animals. Volatile fatty acids probably
contribute minimal metabolic energy in cats but may
be important in the maintenance of local mucosal
health. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:359–361)
Objective—To compare measurements obtained by use of a universal plastic goniometer (UG) and an electrogoniometer (EG) and from radiographs and to compare joint motion in German Shepherd Dogs and Labrador Retrievers.
Animals—12 healthy adult German Shepherd Dogs and data previously collected from 16 healthy adult Labrador Retrievers.
Procedures—German Shepherd Dogs were sedated. One investigator then measured motion of the carpal, cubital (elbow), shoulder, tarsal, stifle, and hip joints of the sedated dogs. Measurements were made in triplicate with a UG and an EG. Radiographs were taken of all joints in maximal flexion and extension. Values were compared between the UG and EG and with values previously determined for joints of 16 Labrador Retrievers.
Results—An EG had higher variability than a UG for all dogs. The EG variability appeared to result from the technique for the EG. German Shepherd Dogs had lower values in flexion and extension than did Labrador Retrievers for all joints, except the carpal joints. German Shepherd Dogs had less motion in the tarsal joints, compared with motion for the Labrador Retrievers, but had similar motion in all other joints.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A UG is reliable for obtaining measurements in German Shepherd Dogs. There was higher variability for the EG than for the UG, and an EG cannot be recommended for use.