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Abstract

Objective—To investigate effects of IV administration of dextrose on coagulation in healthy dogs.

Animals—7 dogs.

Procedures—Thromboelastography and coagulation panel analysis were used to assess coagulation. Samples (S1 through S9) were collected during the study phases: phase 0 (S1 [baseline]); phase 1 (S2 and S3), infusion of crystalloid fluid without dextrose; phase 2 (S4 and S5), high-rate dextrose infusion; phase 3 (S6, S7, and S8), moderate-rate dextrose infusion; and phase 4 (S9), discontinuation of fluids for 24 hours. In phase 3, dogs were allocated to 2 groups; 1 was administered dextrose at a rate comparable to total parental nutrition (40% of resting energy requirement; group A), and 1 was administered dextrose at rates equaling 70% to 90% of resting energy requirement (group B). Blood glucose concentration was measured every 2 hours.

Results—No dogs had clinically relevant sustained hyperglycemia. Maximum amplitude and elastic shear modulus were significantly lower at S6 than at S1 through S4. Concentration of D-dimer was significantly higher at S6 than at S1, S3, and S4 and significantly higher at S5 than at S3. Prothrombin time was significantly prolonged at S3, S5, S7, S8, and S9, compared with the value at S1. Activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly prolonged at S5 and S6, compared with values at S1, S2, S3, S4, and S9.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of dextrose to healthy dogs at rates comparable to or higher than those for conventional parenteral nutrition resulted in mild but clinically unimportant interference with coagulation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Exogenous creatinine clearance, urinary electrolyte excretions, calcium and phosphorus balance, serum cholesterol concentration, arterial blood pressure, and body weight were evaluated in dogs with chronic renal failure that were fed 2 commercial diets. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf, exogenous creatinine clearance = 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal controls were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks at which time hematologic and biochemical evaluations and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a phosphorus-restricted diet containing 16% protein and then reevaluated after 8 weeks.

The dogs in this study had hematologic and biochemical abnormalities typical of crf. Urine absolute and fractional excretion of electrolytes was higher in dogs with crf than in controls and was affected by diet. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in dogs with crf and increased in those dogs after feeding the low protein diet. Changes in dietary sodium intake did not affect arterial blood pressure. The phosphorus-restricted diet did not affect serum amino terminal parathyroid hormone concentration in either group. Control dogs lost body weight, whereas dogs with crf gained weight when fed the low protein diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have the same biochemical abnormalities and response to dietary restriction of protein and phosphorus as has been previously reported in dogs with experimentally induced crf. Restriction of dietary sodium may not decrease arterial blood pressure in some dogs with crf. Dogs with crf may be predisposed to hypercholesterolemia when fed restricted protein commercial diets, and reduction of dietary phosphorus intake may be inadequate to control renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with crf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Amino acid profiles and serum albumin and serum total protein concentrations were evaluated in dogs with renal disease. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf; exogenous creatinine clearance, 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal control dogs, were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks, at which time serum and urine imino acid assays and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a diet containing 16% protein for 3 weeks and then reevaluated.

Chronic renal failure was associated with mild abnormalities in serum concentrations of amino acids. When fed the higher protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum concentrations of glutamine, leucine, proline, and serine and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine and 3-methylhistidine than clinically normal control dogs. When fed the low protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum serine concentrations and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine, phenylalanine, and 3-methylhistidine. Urine excretion of amino acids in all dogs on both diets was low, and dogs with crf had lower renal clearances of 3-methylhistidine than control dogs. There were no significant differences in concentrations of serum albumin and total solids between either group, regardless of diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have mild abnormalities of serum free amino acid concentrations, but renal conservation of essential amino acids is not impaired.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research