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  • Author or Editor: Beate M. Crossley x
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Case Description—A 3-month-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis autumnalis) was evaluated for severe lethargy.

Clinical Findings—Avian influenza virus hemagglutinin subtype H5N2 with low pathogenicity was characterized by virus isolation, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay, chicken intravenous pathogenicity index, and reference sera. The virus was also determined to be closely related to a virus lineage that had been reported only in Mexico and Central America.

Treatment and Outcome—The chick was admitted to the hospital and placed in quarantine. Supportive care treatment was administered. Although detection of H5 avian influenza virus in birds in the United States typically results in euthanasia of infected birds, an alternative strategy with strict quarantine measures and repeated diagnostic testing was used. The chick recovered from the initial clinical signs after 4 days and was released from quarantine 9 weeks after initial evaluation after 2 consecutive negative virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay results.

Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of H5N2 avian influenza A virus isolated from a psittacine bird and represents the first introduction of this virus into the United States, most likely by illegal importation of psittacine birds. Avian influenza A virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease in psittacine birds, especially in birds with an unknown history of origin. Although infection with avian influenza virus subtype H5 is reportable, destruction of birds is not always required.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



Evaluate agreement among the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida obtained by transtracheal wash, nasal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, and bronchoalveolar lavage.


100 Holstein and Holstein-cross bull calves with bovine respiratory disease.


Calves > 30 days old with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease were sampled sequentially by nasal swab, nasopharyngeal swab, transtracheal wash, and then bronchoalveolar lavage. Samples were cultured, and for each antimicrobial, the MIC of 50% and 90% of isolates was calculated, and isolates were categorized as susceptible or not. Categorical discrepancies were recorded. Percent positive agreement and kappa values were calculated between isolates for each of the sampling methods.


Antimicrobial susceptibility varied by pathogen and resistance to enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tilmicosin, and spectinomycin was detected. Minor discrepancies were seen in up to 29% of classifications, with enrofloxacin, penicillin, and florfenicol more frequently represented than other drugs. Very major and major discrepancies were seen when comparing florfenicol (1.9%) and tulathromycin (3.8 to 4.9%) across sampling methods. Some variability was seen in agreement for enrofloxacin for several comparisons (8.3 to 18.4%).


Susceptibility testing of isolates from 1 location of the respiratory tract can reliably represent susceptibility in other locations. Nevertheless, the potential for imperfect agreement between sampling methods does exist. The level of restraint available, the skill level of the person performing the sampling, the age and size of the animal, disease status, and treatment history all must be factored into which test is most appropriate for a given situation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research