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Objective—To evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in canine blood products treated with or without a leukoreduction filter.

Sample—10 canine blood donors.

Procedures—Dogs underwent blood collection. Five of 10 units were leukoreduced prior to separation into packed RBCs and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Concentrations of VEGF were measured by ELISA in plasma supernatants from aliquots of packed RBCs obtained immediately after separation and on days 7, 14, and 21 of storage. Fresh frozen plasma samples of 2 filtered and 2 nonfiltered units were examined after storage.

Results—RBC counts in whole blood before and after leukoreduction did not differ significantly, but WBCs and platelets were removed effectively. The VEGF concentration was lower than the detection limit (9 pg/mL) in 9 of 10 plasma samples and in all packed RBC and FFP units immediately after separation. The median VEGF concentrations in 5 nonfiltered packed RBC units were 37, 164, and 110 pg/mL on days 7, 14, and 21 of storage, respectively. In 5 filtered packed RBC and all FFP units, VEGF concentrations remained lower than the detection limit.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leukoreduction filters were effective in preventing the release of VEGF during storage of canine RBC products.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate excretion of urinary albumin (UAlb) and urinary retinol-binding protein (URBP) in dogs with naturally occurring renal disease.

Animals—64 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to groups according to plasma creatinine concentration, urinary protein-to-urinary creatinine ratio (UP:UC), and exogenous plasma creatinine clearance (P-ClCr) rates: group A (n = 8), nonazotemic (plasma creatinine < 125 μmol/L) and nonproteinuric (UP:UC < 0.2) with P-ClCr rate > 90 mL/min/m2; group B (26), nonazotemic and nonproteinuric with P-ClCr rate 50 to 89 mL/min/m2; group C (7), nonazotemic but proteinuric with P-ClCr rate 53 to 98 mL/min/m2; group D (8), azotemic and borderline proteinuric with P-ClCr rate 22 to 45 mL/min/m2); and group E (15), azotemic and proteinuric (P-ClCr not evaluated). The UAlb and URBP concentrations were measured via ELISA; UAlb-to-urinary creatinine (UAlb:UC) and URBP-to-urinary creatinine (URBP:UC) ratios were determined.

Results—UAlb:UC and URBP:UC did not differ between groups A and B. Increased UAlb: UCs and URBP:UCs were paralleled by increased UP:UCs in groups C, D, and E relative to values from groups A and B, independent of azotemia. There were significant positive correlations of UP:UC with UAlb:UC and of UAlb:UC with URBP:UC (r = 0.82 and 0.46, respectively). However, UP:UC, UAlb:UC, and URBP:UC were not significantly correlated with P-ClCr rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—UAlb and URBP concentrations were paralleled by urinary protein concentrations and may be useful in assessing renal management of plasma proteins. Determination of urinary protein, UAlb, or URBP concentration was not sufficiently sensitive to detect reduced P-ClCr in nonazotemic dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1387—1394)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine clinical and clinicopathologic features of a chronic intermittent severe hemolytic anemia characterized by erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Abyssinian and Somali cats.

Design—Case series.

Animals—13 Abyssinian and 5 Somali cats.

Procedures—History, pedigree information, and results of routine laboratory tests, special erythrocyte studies, and histologic evaluation of splenic and hepatic specimens were analyzed.

Results—Age at which clinical signs of anemia were first apparent ranged from 6 months to 5 years. Ten cats had splenomegaly. Most often, the PCV was between 15 and 25%, but it was as low as 5% at some times. The anemia was characterized by macrocytosis and mild to moderate reticulocytosis, but no poikilocytosis. Hyperglobulinemia, lymphocytosis, mild hyperbilirubinemia, and high hepatic enzyme activities were common findings. Results of Coombs tests and tests for infectious diseases were negative. The erythrocytic osmotic fragility was high in affected cats (mean osmotic fragility, 0.66 to 0.78%), compared with healthy cats (0.48 to 0.58). No specific membrane protein abnormality, erythrocyte enzyme deficiency, or hemoglobinopathy was identified. Histologic evaluation of splenic and hepatic specimens revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis and hemosiderosis. Four of the 5 Somali cats were closely related.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of results of pedigree analyses, the apparent breed predilection, and the exclusion of other known causes of anemia in cats, we believe that the hemolytic anemia in these cats was likely a result of a novel hereditary erythrocyte defect. A genetic predisposition to immunemediated destruction of erythrocytes could not be ruled out. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1483–1491)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize the feline β-globin system with respect to the number and genetics of adult β-globin chains.


84 domestic and purebred cats (9 breeds); 14 cats were mildly to severely anemic. For genetic analyses, 12 litters with 1 to 5 offspring for a total of 29 kittens.


Feline globins from erythrocyte lysates were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed on the basis of retention time and area of each β-globin peak. Mixing studies with half the amount of hemoglobin (Hb) from 2 cats were performed to assign the β-globin peaks in each cat. The Hb from 60 cats were also separated by standard isoelectric focusing methods.


Heme and α- and β-globins were effectively separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although there was only 1 α-globin, a total of 6 β-globins (I through VI) were identified, with each cat having 1 to 4 β-globin chains. From analysis of the number of β-globins, their relative amounts, and Hb mixing studies, 17 β-globin patterns were observed. The β-globin pattern in healthy and anemic cats was identical. Family studies documented an autosomal codominant mode of inheritance of the adult β-globins and a linkage of 2 β-chains forming haplotypes.


Biochemical and genetic evidence for the greatest polymorphism of adult β-globins thus far described in any species is provided. A feline β-globin gene region with 2 linked β-globin gene loci and 2 and 5 alleles is proposed.

Clinical Relevance

Better understanding of feline Hb will likely be helpful for diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies in anemic cats. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:830–835)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine plasma and urine concentrations of retinol, retinyl esters, retinol-binding protein (RBP), and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) in dogs with chronic renal disease (CRD).

Animals—17 dogs with naturally developing CRD and 21 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—A diagnosis of CRD was established on the basis of clinical signs, plasma concentrations of creatinine and urea, and results of urinalysis. Concentrations of retinol and retinyl esters were measured by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of RBP and THP were measured by use of sensitive ELISA systems.

Results—Dogs with CRD had higher plasma concentrations of retinol, which were not paralleled by differences in plasma concentrations of RBP. Calculated ratio of urinary total vitamin A (sum of concentrations of retinol and retinyl esters to creatinine concentration) and ratio of the concentration of urinary retinyl esters to creatinine concentration did not differ between groups. However, we detected a significantly higher retinol-to-creatinine ratio in the urine of dogs with CRD, which was paralleled by a higher urinary RBP-to-creatinine ratio. Thus, in dogs with CRD, the estimated fractional clearance of total vitamin A, retinol, and RBP was increased. Furthermore, dogs with CRD had a reduced urinary THP-to-creatinine ratio.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study documented that CRD affects the concentrations of retinol in plasma and urine of dogs. Analysis of the data indicates that measurement of urinary RBP and urinary THP concentrations provides valuable information that can be helpful in follow-up monitoring of dogs with CRD. (Am J Vet Res 2003:64:874–879)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare response rates and remission and survival times in dogs with lymphoma treated with a continuous, multiagent, doxorubicin-based chemotherapeutic protocol or with a short-term single-agent protocol incorporating doxorubicin.

Design—Nonrandomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—114 dogs with lymphoma.

Procedures—Dogs were treated with a chemotherapeutic protocol consisting of L-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and prednisolone (n = 87) or doxorubicin alone (27).

Results—63 of 86 (73%) dogs treated with the multiagent protocol (data on response was unavailable for 1 dog) and 14 of 27 (52%) dogs treated with the single-agent protocol had a complete remission. Dogs with lymphoma classified as substage ≤ and dogs with a high BUN concentration at the time of initial diagnosis were significantly less likely to have a complete remission. No significant difference in remission or survival time could be demonstrated between treatment groups. Incidence of hematologic and gastrointestinal tract toxicoses did not differ between treatment groups, with the exception that vomiting was more common among dogs treated with the multiagent protocol.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this population of dogs, we were not able to identify any significant difference in remission or survival times between dogs with lymphoma treated with a continuous, multiagent chemotherapeutic protocol and dogs treated with a short-term single-agent protocol involving doxorubicin.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association