Objective—To compare values of lower urogenital tract urodynamic and morphometric variables determined during the prepubertal (sexually immature) period and first and second estrous cycles in healthy female Beagle littermates to determine functional and anatomic changes of the lower urogenital tract during those periods.
Animals—5 female Beagle littermates.
Procedures—Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed when dogs were 3.5, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8.5, and 9 months old and during proestrus; estrus; early, middle, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus of the first and second estrous cycles.
Results—At the end of the prepubertal period, values of urodynamic and morphometric variables increased significantly, compared with values at earlier times. Maximum bladder capacity developed when dogs were 9 months old. In all dogs, the bladder was intermittently located in an intrapelvic position during the prepubertal period; the bladder was intra-abdominal from the time dogs were 9 months old until the end of the study. Urethral pressure decreased significantly during estrus and early diestrus of the first and second estrous cycles. Bladder capacity increased significantly during diestrus of both estrous cycles. Urethral and vaginal lengths were significantly longer during proestrus and estrus than they were during anestrus.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values of lower urogenital tract urodynamic and morphometric variables were influenced by age and phases of the estrous cycle of immature and young adult Beagles in this study. Age of dog and phase of estrous cycle should be considered when interpreting urodynamic and vaginourethrography data.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of signs of abdominal pain and anuria of 12 hours' duration after vehicular trauma.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Lethargy, mydriasis, bradycardia, abdominal distension, and signs of pain on abdominal palpation were observed. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate urinary bladder distension without evidence of free abdominal fluid; hematologic evaluation revealed leukocytosis with high BUN and serum creatinine concentrations.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The patient was hospitalized, medical stabilization was attempted, and an indwelling urinary catheter was placed. Urinary output was < 1 mL/kg/h (< 0.45 mL/lb/h), and signs of abdominal pain persisted despite treatment. The next day, ultrasonographic examination revealed fluid in the retroperitoneal space, and ureteral rupture was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed retroperitoneal fluid accumulation; a large hematoma surrounded the right kidney and perirenal structures. An abdominal drain was placed to aid patient stabilization. Three days later, IV pyelography revealed rupture of the proximal part of the right ureter. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed with elongated cystoplasty through a Boari flap and caudal transposition of the right kidney (renal descensus). On follow-up examination 18 months after treatment, the cat was free of clinical signs, and results of ultrasonography, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis were unremarkable.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that a Boari flap procedure with renal descensus could be a feasible alternative in the management of proximal ureteral rupture in cats, but research is needed in this area.
Objective—To compare the values of the urodynamic
parameters of the lower portion of the urinary
tract and vaginourethral measurements obtained during
the phases of the estrous cycle in dogs and determine
possible functional or anatomic modifications of
the lower portion of the urinary tract associated with
Animals—7 adult female Beagles.
Procedure—Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis
cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed
in each dog during proestrus; estrus; early,
mid, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus. The
maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral
closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and
anatomic profile lengths (UFPL and UAPL, respectively),
integrated pressure, threshold pressure,
threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and
vaginal length and width were measured.
Results—For all measurements, significant interindividual
variation was detected. Integrated and threshold
pressures, APL, and each morphometric value significantly
increased from late anestrus to proestrus.
Compared with other phases, MUP, MUCP, and integrated
pressure values were significantly lower in
estrus and early diestrus; UAPL and UFPL values
were significantly lower in late diestrus. At each cycle
phase in old dogs, MUP, MUCP, threshold pressure,
and vaginal length and width were significantly lower
(except in proestrus for vaginal measurements) and
threshold volume and compliance values were significantly
higher, compared with middle-aged dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urodynamic
and morphometric measurements of the lower portion
of the urogenital tract are affected by the changes
in hormonal balance that occur during the estrous
cycle. In sexually intact female dogs, estrous phase
determination is important for the interpretation of
urodynamic data. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1075–1083)
Objectives—To compare retrograde filling cystometry
at infusion rates of 5, 10, and 20 mL/min with
diuresis cystometry for determination of an appropriate
infusion rate and to confirm the reproducibility of
measurements obtained by urethral pressure profilometry
(UPP) and cystometry in female Beagles.
Animals—6 adult female Beagles.
Procedure—Successive UPP and cystometry were
performed by use of a water perfusion catheter on
dogs anesthetized with propofol. Dogs randomly
underwent each of the following at 1-week intervals:
retrograde filling cystometry at 5, 10, and 20 mL/min,
and diuresis cystometry. The maximum urethral pressure
and closure pressure, functional and anatomic
profile lengths, threshold pressure, threshold volume,
and compliance were measured.
Results—For each UPP variable, significant differences
were found among dogs, but no significant differences
were found in intra- or interstudy measurements
for individual dogs. For retrograde filling cystometry,
threshold pressure was not significantly different
between a 5 and 10 mL/min infusion rate.
Threshold pressure was significantly higher during
retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min, compared
with 5 and 10 mL/min, and was associated with bladder
wall damages. Threshold pressure was significantly
lower during diuresis cystometry, compared
with retrograde filling cystometries. Threshold volume
and compliance were not significantly different
among retrograde filling cystometries but were significantly
higher during diuresis cystometry.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrograde
filling cystometry at 20 mL/min leads to unacceptable
sudden increase in threshold bladder pressure.
Retrograde filling cystometry at 10 mL/min can be
recommended in a clinical setting, shortening the
anesthesia time. However, diuresis cystometry
approximates physiologic bladder filling most accurately.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:574–579)
Objective—To compare the urodynamic and hemodynamic effects of different dosages of phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine and determine effective dosages in increasing urethral resistance in female dogs.
Animals—20 sexually intact female Beagles.
Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 4 groups and received phenylpropanolamine once, twice, or 3 times daily, or ephedrine twice daily, for 14 days. On days 0, 7, and 14, urethral pressure profiles were performed while dogs were anesthetized with propofol. Variables recorded included maximum urethral pressure, maximum urethral closure pressure, integrated pressure, functional profile length, anatomic profile length, plateau distance, distance before maximum urethral pressure, and maximum meatus pressure. Arterial and central venous pressures were measured before anesthetic induction and 10 and 35 minutes after induction.
Results—Administration of phenylpropanolamine once daily or ephedrine twice daily significantly increased maximum urethral pressure and maximum urethral closure pressure. Values for integrated pressure were significantly increased after 14 days of once-daily administration of phenylpropanolamine. Variables did not change significantly from day 7 to day 14. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures increased significantly during the treatment periods, and arterial pressure decreased during propofol infusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of phenylpropanolamine once daily or ephedrine twice daily increased urethral resistance in clinically normal dogs and may be recommended for management of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. Treatment efficacy may be assessed after 1 week. Dogs with concurrent cardiovascular disease should be monitored for blood pressure while receiving α-adrenergic agents because of the effects on diastolic and mean arterial pressure.
Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of
1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and
sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.
Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.
Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of
aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or
intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate
destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities
and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously.
Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole
by use of a modified noninvasive infusion
procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with
2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via
endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs
underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of
further treatment until cure was established.
Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and
rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before
treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9,
6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments,
respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized
before the end of the treatment protocol. In
group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were
cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only
minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis,
and sneezing developed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive
rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole
infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses,
respectively, were effective for treatment of
aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via
endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require
fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is
strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)
Objective—To compare the urodynamic and morphologic effects of the administration of estriol alone and in combination with phenylpropanolamine on the lower portion of the urogenital tract in female dogs.
Animals—3 sexually intact and 3 spayed female Beagles without urinary incontinence.
Procedure—Dogs received estriol (2 mg, PO) once daily for 7 days followed by estriol (2 mg, PO) and phenylpropanolamine (1.5 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 7 days. Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed before treatment (day 0) and at days 7 and 14. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP) and closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths, integrated pressure (IP), plateau, distance before MUP, maximum meatus pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.
Results—Before treatment, no urodynamic differences were observed between the 2 groups; however, vaginal length and width were significantly shorter in spayed dogs. Compared with day 0 values, estriol treatment significantly increased MUP, MUCP, and IP values at day 7, but at day 14, this effect decreased despite phenylpropanolamine administration. No morphologic changes from baseline were detected after either treatment in any dog.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that estriol mainly acts on the urethral sphincter mechanism by increasing urethral resistance in sexually intact and spayed female dogs without urinary incontinence. Administration of estriol and phenylpropanolamine did not increase the urethral resistance more than estriol alone. The urodynamic effects of estriol in female dogs with urinary incontinence remain to be elucidated.
To describe functional and anatomic changes of the lower urogenital tract of healthy male dogs during the sexually immature period and up to 2 years of age by urodynamic and morphometric assessment.
6 sexually intact male Beagle littermates.
Dogs underwent electromyography-coupled urodynamic tests, CT-assisted retrograde urethrography, prostatic washes, and blood sampling monthly from 4 through 12 months of age and then at 3-month intervals. Urodynamic and morphometric variables and serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations were analyzed by statistical methods.
Integrated pressure of the urethra was significantly increased beginning at 8 months of age, compared with earlier time points. Urethral pressure peak amplitudes varied among anatomic regions. During bladder filling, few electromyographic signals were concurrent with urethral pressure peaks; these were most commonly detected in the penile portion of the urethra. Urethral length and prostate gland volume were significantly greater from 7 to 24 months of age than at younger ages. Urethral length was approximately 26 to 27 cm after 9 months, and prostate gland volume was approximately 11 to 12 cm after 11 months of age. Serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations correlated with prostate gland volume. Urinary bladder threshold volume was significantly increased at 6 months of age, compared with that at 4 months, with a maximum of 197.7 mL at 24 months.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Urethral resistance was acquired at approximately 8 months of age, when growth of the lower urinary tract was incomplete. Electromyographic and integrated pressure measurement results and the distribution and amplitude of urethral pressure peaks highlighted the potential role of the prostate gland and possibly the bulbocavernosus muscles in control of continence.
To assess histologic evaluation of mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (MRLNs) for metastatic disease during tumor staging for dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Retrospective multi-institutional study.
27 dogs with OMM and 21 dogs with OSCC.
Medical record databases of 8 institutions were searched to identify dogs with OMM or OSCC that underwent unilateral or bilateral extirpation of the MLNs and MRLNs during the same procedure between January 2004 and April 2016. Information extracted from the records included signalment, primary mass location and size, diagnostic imaging results, histologic results for the primary tumor and all lymph nodes evaluated, and whether distant metastasis developed.
Prevalence of lymph node metastasis did not differ significantly between dogs with OMM (10/27 [37%]) and dogs with OSCC (6/21 [29%]). Distant metastasis was identified in 11 (41%) dogs with OMM and was suspected in 1 dog with OSCC. The MRLN was affected in 13 of 16 dogs with lymph node metastasis, and 3 of those dogs had metastasis to the MRLN without concurrent metastasis to an MLN. Metastasis was identified in lymph nodes contralateral to the primary tumor in 4 of 17 dogs that underwent contralateral lymph node removal.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated histologic evaluation of only 1 MLN was insufficient to definitively rule out lymph node metastasis in dogs with OMM or OSCC; therefore, bilateral lymphadenectomy of the MLN and MRLN lymphocentra is recommended for such dogs.