A 12-year-old sexually intact male Quarter Horse was examined for diffuse subcutaneous emphysema and reluctance to walk. Physical examination revealed a 25-cm-long laceration of the left axillary region that had been present for several days. The patient was severely dyspneic with a respiratory rate of 80 breaths/min and tachycardic with a heart rate of 120 beats/min. Mucous membranes were cyanotic with a capillary refill time of 3 seconds. The rectal temperature was within reference limits. Auscultation of the thorax was compromised as a result of the subcutaneous emphysema, but normal airway sounds were absent in the dorsal aspect of
Objective—To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.
Design—Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA.
Animals—The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA.
Procedures—Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period.
Results—Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.
OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA).
DESIGN Prospective case-control study.
ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses.
PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses. Echocardiography was performed in 14 HERDA-affected and 11 control horses. Biomechanical data and echocardiographic variables of interest were compared between groups by statistical analyses,
RESULTS Mean values for mean and maximum UTS of heart valves were significantly lower in HERDA-affected horses than in controls. Blood vessels were identified in aortic valve leaflets of HERDA-affected but not control horses. Most echocardiographic data did not differ between groups. When the statistical model for echocardiographic measures was controlled for body weight, mean and maximum height and width of the aorta at the valve annulus in short-axis images were significantly associated with HERDA status and were smaller for affected horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lower UTS of heart valves in HERDA-affected horses, compared with those of control horses, supported that tissues other than skin with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in horses with HERDA. Lack of significant differences in most echocardiographic variables between affected and control horses suggested that echocardiography may not be useful to detect a substantial loss of heart valve tensile strength. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. Studies in horses with HERDA may provide insight into cardiac abnormalities in people with collagen disorders.