Objective—To determine the effects of protamine sulfate on clot formation time and clot strength thromboelastography variables for canine whole blood samples.
Animals—Blood samples obtained from 11 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from jugular veins of dogs into syringes with 3.2% sodium citrate (blood to citrate ratio, 9:1). Blood samples were divided into aliquots, and protamine sulfate was added to various concentrations (0 [control], 22, 44, and 66 μg/mL). Prepared samples were activated with kaolin (n = 8) or not activated (8), CaCl2 was added, and thromboelastography was performed. Reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), rate of clot formation (α angle), and maximum amplitude (MA) were measured.
Results—For kaolin-activated and nonactivated blood samples, protamine (66 μg/mL) significantly increased R and K and decreased α angle and MA, compared with values for control samples. Also, protamine (44 μg/mL) decreased MA in nonactivated blood samples and increased K and decreased α angle in kaolin-activated samples, compared with values for control samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated protamine prolonged clot formation time and decreased overall clot strength in a dose-dependent manner; such effects may contribute to a hypocoagulable state in dogs. Kaolin-activated and nonactivated blood samples were appropriate for measurement of the effects of protamine on coagulation. Administration of protamine to reverse the effects of heparin should be performed with caution.
OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA).
ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs.
PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions. Three measurements of peak velocity at end expiration were obtained for each vessel, and the mean was calculated. Results were compared between IMHA and control groups.
RESULTS Mean ± SD blood flow velocity in the CVC differed between control (63.0 ± 18.6 cm/s) and IMHA (104 ± 36.9 cm/s) groups. Variance in dogs with IMHA was significantly greater than that for the clinically normal dogs. No significant difference in blood flow velocity in the PV was detected between IMHA and control dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Higher blood flow velocities were detected by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in the CVC of dogs with naturally occurring IMHA and may be used to predict anemia in patients suspected of having IMHA.