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Abstract

Objectives

To determine oxygen metabolism, permeability, and blood flow in isolated joints in response to interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and contribution of innervation.

Sample Population

One metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of 24 adult horses.

Procedure

The MCP joint was isolated for 6 hours in a pump-perfused, auto-oxygenated, innervated or denervated preparation. Isolated joints were assigned to the following 4 groups: control, control-denervated, inflamed, and inflamed-denervated, and inflammation was induced by intra-articular injection of IL-1β. Circuit arterial and venous pressures, flows, and blood gas tensions, synovial fluid production, and intra-articular pressure were measured. Total vascular resistance; oxygen delivery, consumption, and extraction ratio (ER); and permeability surface area product were calculated. Synovial membrane blood flow was determined at 0, 60, and 330 minutes. Synovial membrane wet-to-dry ratio was obtained, and permeability to macromolecules was determined by intra-articular injection of Evans blue albumin and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran.

Results

Oxygen delivery and synovial membrane blood flow progressively increased but were not different among groups. Oxygen consumption and ER significantly increased in inflamed joints, as did intraarticular pressure and synovial fluid production. Inflamed joints had greater wet-to-dry ratio. Albumin permeability significantly increased in the villous synovial membrane of the inflamed groups, and dextran permeability was increased in the innervated groups, with a trend toward increased permeability in inflamed groups.

Conclusion

Inflammation significantly increased oxygen demand, which was initially met by increased ER. Permeability to small molecules was increased with inflammation; innervation increased permeability to large molecules. Use of an isolated joint model enabled documentation of the physiologic responses of the joint to acute inflammation. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1307–1316)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether irradiation with a low-intensity diode laser, which produces radiation at a wavelength of 810 nm, will induce nonthermal enhancement of chondrocyte metabolism.

Sample Population

144 grossly normal articular cartilage expiants aseptically harvested from the femoral condyles of 6 adult horses.

Procedure

Treated cartilage expiants were irradiated with a diode laser at 1 of 7 fluence levels that ranged from 8 to 1,600 J/cm2. Expiants were incubated for 24 or 72 hours, labeled for 24 hours with [35S]Na2SO4, and assayed for newly synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG; measured incorporation of 35SO4) and endogenous GAG, chondroitin 6-sulfate (CS), and keratan sulfate (KS) content, using a dimethylmethylene blue assay. Laser-induced temperature changes were measured during irradiation with a diode laser and a neodymiumyttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, which produces radiation at a wavelength of 1,064 nm, using conditions that were reported in previous studies to increase explant metabolism.

Results

After incubation for 24 or 72 hours, rate of 35SO4 uptake or endogenous GAG, CS, or KS content in irradiated expiants was not significantly different than in nonirradiated expiants. Cartilage temperature increased < 4.75 C during diode laser application. Cartilage temperature increased 5 to 12 C during Nd:YAG laser application.

Conclusions

Minimal thermal increases in cartilage expiants with use of a low-intensity diode laser resulted in no change in proteoglycan metabolism of chondrocytes. An increase in tissue temperature over a narrow range with use of a Nd:YAG laser may have contributed to the metabolic alteration of chondrocytes reported in previous studies. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1613-1618)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Lactase, maltase, sucrase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were determined in the intestinal mucosa from 3 locations in the small intestine and 4 locations in the large intestine 1 year after extensive large-colon resection (group 1; n = 5) and 1 year after sham operation (group 2; n = 3) in horses.

Lactase, maltase, and sucrase activities were similar (P > 0.05) between group-1 and group-2 horses in all locations measured in the intestinal tract. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the remaining large colon of group-1 horses was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the activity in the large colon of group-2 horses. Decreased apparent digestion of phosphorus and a negative phosphorus balance are persistent features of large-colon resection in horses. Increases in alkaline phosphatase activity in the remaining colon of horses with extensive large-colon resection may be a specific functional adaptive mechanism that attempts to counteract the derangements in phosphorus metabolism.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of low-flow ischemia and reperfusion of the large colon on systemic and colonic hemodynamic and metabolic variables were determined in horses. Twenty-four adult horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated (n = 6), 6 hours of ischemia (n = 9), and 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion (n = 9). Low-flow ischemia was induced in groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, cardiac index, pulmonary artery pressure, right atrial pressure, and colonic blood flow were monitored. Arterial, mixed-venous, and colonic venous blood gas and oximetry analyses; PCV; and blood lactate and pyruvate and plasma total protein concentrations were measured. Data were recorded, and blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30-minute intervals for 6 hours; additionally, data were collected at 185, 190, and 195 minutes (corresponding to 5, 10, and 15 minutes of reperfusion in group-3 horses). There were no differences among groups at baseline or across time for any systemic hemodynamic or metabolic variable. Colonic blood flow did not change across time in group-1 horses. Colonic blood flow significantly (P < 0.05) decreased to 20% of baseline at induction of ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3 and remained significantly decreased throughout the ischemic period in horses of groups 2 (6 hours) and 3 (3 hours). Colonic blood flow significantly (P < 0.05) increased above baseline by 5 minutes of reperfusion in group-3 horses. Colonic oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, and colonic venous pH, Po2 percentage saturation of hemoglobin, and oxygen content were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased within 30 minutes after induction of ischemia in horses of groups 2 and 3; colonic venous Po2 colonic oxygen extraction ratio, and lactate and pyruvate concentrations were significantiy (P < 0.05) increased by 30 minutes of ischemia. These alterations continued throughout ischemia, but within 5 minutes of reperfusion in group-3 horses, these variables either returned to baseline (pH, Pco2 lactate, pyruvate), significantly (P < 0.05) increased above baseline (Po2 oxygen content, % saturation of hemoglobin), or significantly (P < 0.05) decreased below baseline (colonic oxygen extraction ratio). Colonic oxygen consumption remained decreased during reperfusion in group-3 horses. Colonic mucosal ischemia-reperfusion injury observed in this model of ischemia was associated with local colonic hemodynamic and metabolic alterations in the presence of systemic hemodynamic and metabolic stability. Reactive hyperemia was observed at restoration of colonic blood flow in group-3 horses and persisted during reperfusion. Colonic venous metabolic alterations were corrected at reperfusion, indicating adaptation of the colon to the return of blood flow and oxygen delivery with resultant decrease in anaerobic metabolism. The early alterations in these variables may simply represent a washout of metabolic by-products.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of high-molecular weight (MW) dextran macromolecules on low-flow ischemia and reperfusion of the large colon in horses.

Design

Horses subjected to low-flow ischemia and reperfusion of the large colon were treated with either 0.9 NaCI (group 1, n = 6) or high-MW dextran (group 2, n = 6) solutions.

Animals

12 adult horses.

Procedure

Horses were subjected to 3 hours' low-flow ischemia followed by 3 hours' reperfusion. A dose of either 0.9% NaCI or a 6% solution of high-MW (250,000) dextran (10 ml/kg of body weight) was administered IV, 30 minutes prior to reperfusion. Hemodynamic variables were recorded at 30-minute intervals. Systemic arterial and colonic venous blood were collected for determination of PCV, plasma total protein, and whole blood lactate concentrations, and for blood gas and oximetry analyses. Histologic examination of large-colon biopsy specimens was performed.

Results

Mean arterial pressure was greater in group-2 horses, compared with group-1 horses, from 3 to 3.25 hours, but there were no significant differences between groups for any of the other hemodynamic variables. Compared with baseline values, colonic blood flow was significantly lower from 0.5 to 3 hours and was significantly greater from 3.25 to 6 hours. Arterial and colonic venous PCV were significantly lower than baseline values from 3 to 3.25 hours, and at 3 hours, respectively, in group-2 horses. These values were significantly lower in group-2 horses, from 3 to 6 and 3 to 5 hours, respectively. There was significant mucosal necrosis, hemorrhage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration in horses of both groups; however, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups.

Conclusions

High-MW dextran did not protect the colonic mucosa from low-flow ischemia and reperfusion; there were no deleterious effects on colonic mucosa or on systemic hemodynamic or metabolic variables.

Clinical Relevance

Reperfusion with high-MW dextran solution probably would not protect the large colon from ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with large-colon volvulus. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1067–1073)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To provide quantitative assessment of forces affecting filtration of synovial fluid in response to incremental changes in arterial and venous hemodynamics.

Animals

7 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure

Using a stationary, isolated metacarpophalangeal joint preparation, blood flow (Qacir), tissue perfusion, arterial pressure (Pacir), venous pressure (Pvcir), transsynovial fluid flow, total vascular resistance, vascular compliance, and tissue compliance were evaluated before and after arterial and venous pressure manipulations. At isogravimetric conditions, pre- and postcapillary resistance and ratios, osmotic reflection coefficient (σd), capillary pressure, net filtration pressure, and transitional microvascular pressure were determined.

Results

Synovial tissue blood flow was similar before, immediately after, and 3.5 hours after joint isolation. The σd for the joint was low, owing to the high oncotic pressure of synovial fluid at filtration-independent states. Transsynovial flow occurred in preference to lymph flow because of the high permeability of synovial tissue (low σd). Synovial fluid production and transfluid flow (synovium weight gain) increased at Pacir > 200 mm of Hg, indicating a threshold phenomenon for synovial filtration. Net filtration pressure > 6 mm of Hg is needed to effect an increase in synovial fluid flow, and pressure of approximately 11 mm of Hg is necessary to increase lymphatic flow. Vascular compliance in the joint was low, but increased markedly with Pvcir. Vascular and tissue compliance increased with increased Pacir. Vascular compliance changes caused by increased arterial pressure were minimal, compared with those caused by increased venous pressure owing to the greater elastance of arteries and the larger muscular arterial wall.

Conclusion

This isolated joint preparation permitted evaluation of codependent hemodynamic, microvascular, and transsynovial flow responses to hemodynamic manipulations. Synovial tissue permeability was markedly affected by increased vascular forces altering filtration pressures toward synovial fluid production. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:495–503)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Cardiovascular responses to sublethal endotoxin infusion (Escherichia coli, 50 μg/ml in lactated Ringer solution at 100 ml/h until pulmonary arterial pressure increased by 10 mm of Hg) were measured 2 times in 5 standing horses. In a 2-period crossover experimental design, horses were either administered hypertonic (2,400 mosm/kg of body weight, iv) or isotonic (300 mosm/kg, iv) NaCl solution after endotoxin challenges. Each solution was administered at a dose of 5 ml/kg (infusion rate, 80 ml/min). Complete data sets (mean arterial, central venous, and pulmonary arterial pressures, pulmonary arterial blood temperature, cardiac output, total peripheral vascular resistance, heart rate, plasma osmolality, plasma concentration of Na, K, Cl, and total protein, blood lactate concentration, and pcv) were collected at 0 (baseline, before endotoxin infusion), 0.25, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 hours after initiation of the endotoxin infusion. Blood constituents alone were measured at 0.5 hour and cardiovascular variables alone were evaluated at 0.75 hour. By 0.25 hour, endotoxin infusion was completed, a data set was collected, and saline infusion was initiated. By 0.75 hour, saline solutions had been completely administered.

Mean (± sem) cardiac output decreased (99.76 ± 3.66 to 72.7 ± 2.35 ml/min/kg) and total peripheral resistance (1.0 ± 0.047 to 1.37 ± 0.049 mm of Hg/ml/min/kg) and pulmonary arterial pressure (33.4 ± 0.86 to 58.3 ± 1.18 mm of Hg) increased for both trials by 0.25 hour after initiation of the endotoxin infusion and prior to fluid administration. For the remainder of the protocol, cardiac output was increased and total peripheral resistance was decreased during the hypertonic, compared with the isotonic, saline trial. Cardiac output was decreased and total peripheral resistance was increased during the isotonic saline trial, compared with baseline values. Both trials were associated with increased blood lactate concentration, but lactate values during the isotonic saline trial were greater and remained increased above baseline values for a longer period (4 hours) than during the hypertonic saline trial (2.5 hours). It was concluded for this model of endotoxemia, that iv administered hypertonic saline solution was associated with more-desirable cardiovascular and metabolic responses than was an equal volume of isotonic saline solution.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Thirty horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups. All horses were anesthetized and subjected to ventral midline celiotomy, then the large colon was exteriorized and instrumented. Colonic arterial blood flow was reduced to 20% of baseline (bl) and was maintained for 3 hours. Colonic blood flow was then restored, and the colon was reperfused for an additional 3 hours. One of 5 drug solutions was administered via the jugular vein 30 minutes prior to colonic reperfusion: group 1, 0.9% NaCl; group 2, dimethyl sulfoxide: 1 g/kg of body weight; group 3, allopurinol: 25 mg/kg; group 4, 21-aminosteroid U-74389G: 10 mg/kg; and group 5, manganese chloride (MnCl2): 10 mg/kg. Hemodynamic variables were monitored and recorded at 30-minutes intervals. Systemic arterial, systemic venous (sv), and colonic venous (cv) blood samples were collected for measurement of blood gas tensions, oximetry, lactate concentration, Pcv, and plasma total protein concentration. The eicosanoids, 6-keto prostaglandin F, prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2, were measured in cv blood, and endotoxin was measured in cv and sv blood. Full-thickness biopsy specimens were harvested from the left ventral colon for histologic evaluation and determination of wet weight-to-dry weight ratios (WW:DW). Data were analyzed, using two-way ANOVA for repeated measures, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output increased with MnCl2 infusion; heart rate and cardiac output remained increased throughout the study, but mean arterial pressure returned to bl values within 30 minutes after completion of MnCI2 infusion. Other drug-induced changes were not significant. There were significant increases in mean pulmonary artery and mean right atrial pressures at 2 and 2.5 hours in horses of all groups, but other changes across time or differences among groups were not observed. Mean pulmonary artery pressure remained increased through 6 hours in all groups, but mean right atrial pressure had returned to bl values at 3 hours. Mean colonic arterial pressure was significantly decreased at 30 minutes of ischemia and remained decreased through 6 hours; however, by 3.25 hours it was significantly higher than the value at 3 hours of ischemia. Colonic arterial resistance decreased during ischemia and remained decreased throughout reperfusion in all groups; there were no differences among groups for colonic arterial resistance. Colonic venous Po2, oxygen content, and pH decreased, and Pco2 and lactate concentration increased during ischemia but returned to bl values during reperfusion. Compared with bl values, colonic oxygen extraction ratio was increased from 0.5 to 3 hours. By 15 minutes of reperfusion, colonic oxygen extraction ratio had decreased from the bl value in all groups and either remained decreased or returned to values not different from bl through 6 hours. Colonic venous 6-keto prostaglandin F and prostaglandin E2 concentrations increased during ischemia, but returned to bl on reperfusion; there were no changes in thrombox- ane2 concentration among or within groups. Endotoxin was not detected in cv or sv blood after ischemia or reperfusion. There were no differences among or within groups for these variables. Low-flow ischemia and reperfusion (i-r) of the large colon caused mucosal injury, as evidenced by increases in percentage of surface mucosal disruption, percentage depth of mucosal loss, mucosal hemorrhage, mucosal edema, mucosal interstitial-to-crypt ratio, mucosal neutrophil index, submucosal venular neutrophil numbers, and mucosal cellular debris index. There was a trend (P = 0.06) toward greater percentage depth of mucosal loss at 6 hours in horses treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, compared with the vehicle control solution. There were no differences in the remainder of the histologic variables among groups. Full-thickness and mucosal WW:DW increased with colonic I-R, but there were no differences among groups. There was a trend (P = 0.09) toward neutrophil accumulation, as measured by myeloperoxidase activity, in the lungs after colonic I-R, but there were no differences among groups. There was no change in lung WW:DW after colonic I-R. There were no beneficial effects of drugs directed against oxygen-derived free radical-mediated damage on colonic mucosal injury associated with low-flow I-R. Deleterious drug-induced hemodynamic effects were not observed in this study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Histomorphologic/morphometric evaluation, leukocyte scintigraphy, and myeloperoxidase activity were used to determine whether neutrophils accumulate in the large colon of horses during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. Twenty-four adult horses were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group 1, sham-operated (n = 6); group 2, 6 hours of ischemia (n = 9); and group 3, 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion (n = 9). Low-flow ischemia of the large colon was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline. Radiolabeled (99mTc) autogenous neutrophils were injected at 175 minutes, which corresponded to 5 minutes prior to reperfusion in group-3 horses. Full-thickness biopsy specimens of the left ventral colon were collected at baseline and at 30-minute intervals for 6 hours; a portion of the biopsy specimen was placed in formalin for histologic examination, and the remainder was used to measure mucosal radioactivity and myeloperoxidase activity. There were no differences in baseline mucosal neutrophil index, mucosal neutrophil numbers, submucosal venular neutrophil numbers, mucosal radioactivity, or mucosal myeloperoxidase activity among groups, or over time in group-1 horses. Neutrophils accumulated in the colonic mucosa during ischemia and further increased at reperfusion, as indicated by neutrophil index (morphology) and mucosal neutrophil numbers (morphometry); mucosal neutrophil index was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 horses during reperfusion than at the corresponding periods of ischemia in group-2 horses. Neutrophil numbers were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in submucosal venules at 10 minutes of reperfusion in group-3 horses and were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 than in group-2 horses during the interval from 3 to 6 hours. Mucosal radioactivity significantly (P < 0.05) increased at reperfusion in group-3 horses; there was a trend (P = 0.076) toward greater mucosal radioactivity in group-3, compared with group-2 horses, throughout the 3- to 6-hour interval. There were no differences in mucosal myeloperoxidase activity among or within any of the 3 groups over time.

Neutrophils accumulated in the large colon of horses during low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. Neutrophil infiltration was detected by histologic examination and leukocyte scintigraphy, but not by measurement of myeloperoxidase activity. The accumulation of neutrophils during ischemia and the further neutrophil infiltration during reperfusion indicate that neutrophils may contribute to reperfusion injury of the large colon.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of low-flow ischemia and reperfusion of the large colon on mucosal architecture were determined in horses. Twenty-four adult horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated (n = 6), 6 hours of ischemia (n = 9), and 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion (n = 9). Low-flow ischemia was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline values. Systemic hemodynamic and metabolic variables were maintained constant and in a normal physiologic range. Full-thickness biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventral colon for histomorphologic and morphometric examination at baseline and at 30-minute intervals for 6 hours; additional biopsy specimens were collected at 185, 190, and 195 minutes (corresponding to 5-, 10-, and 15-minute periods of reperfusion in group-3 horses). There were no differences among groups at baseline or across time in group-1 horses for any of the histopathologic variables. There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in percentage of surface mucosal disruption, estimated and measured percentage depth of mucosal loss, mucosal hemorrhage, mucosal edema, and cellular debris index during 0 hour to 3 hours, compared with baseline, and from 3 hours to 6 hours, compared with 3 hours in horses of groups 2 and 3. Estimated percentage depth of mucosal loss and cellular debris index were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 horses, compared with group-2 horses during the interval from 3 to 6 hours. There were trends toward greater percentage of surface mucosal disruption and mucosal edema during the early phase of reperfusion (3 to 4 hours) and greater mucosal hemorrhage, measured percentage depth of mucosal loss, and mucosal interstitial-to-crypt ratio during the late phase (4 to 6 hours) of reperfusion in group-3 horses vs group-2 horses. Reestablishment of colonic arterial blood flow after low-flow ischemia caused greater mucosal injury than did a comparable period of continued ischemia. Thus, reperfusion injury was detected in the large colon of horses after low-flow arterial ischemia. The serial mucosal alterations that developed in the colon were comparable in horses of groups 2 and 3; however, reperfusion exacerbated colonic mucosal injury.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research