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  • Author or Editor: Alicia L Bertone x
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OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of vertical force peak (VFP) of repition within trials and between trial sessions in horses with naturally occurring appendicular lameness.

ANIMALS 20 lame horses acclimated to trotting over a force plate.

PROCEDURES Kinetic gait data were collected by use of a force plate regarding affected and contralateral limbs of lame horses that completed 5 valid repetitions in each of 5 sessions performed at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, constituting 1 trial/horse. Data were compared within and among repetitions and sessions, and factors influencing VFP values were identified.

RESULTS VFP values differed for lame limbs after 3 valid repetitions were performed within a session and when the interval between sessions was 3 hours. Direction of change reflected less lameness (greater VFP). Lamer horses (≥ grade 4/5) had this finding to a greater degree than did less lame horses. Results were similar for contralateral limbs regarding valid repetitions within a session; however, VFP decreased when the interval between sessions exceeded 6 hours. The coefficient of variation for VFP was ≤ 8% within sessions and ≤ 6% between sessions. The asymmetry index for VFP did not change throughout the study.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lameness profiles obtained through kinetic gait analysis of horses with naturally occurring lameness were most accurate when valid repetitions were limited to 3 and the interval between sessions within a trial was > 3 hours. Findings suggested that natural lameness may be as suitable as experimentally induced lameness for lameness research involving horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess analgesia, inflammation, potency, and duration of action associated with intra-articular injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), mepivacaine hydrochloride, or both in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of horses with experimentally induced acute synovitis.

Animals—18 horses.

Procedures—Both forelimbs of each horse were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 3 times. After the first LPS injection, 1 forelimb of each horse was treated with intra-articular injection of mepivacaine (80 mg; n = 6), TA (9 mg; 6), or mepivacaine with TA (same doses of each; 6) 12 hours after the initial LPS injection. Contralateral limbs served as control limbs. Joint pain was assessed via lameness score and measurements of vertical force peak and pain-free range of motion of the MCP joint. Periarticular edema was evaluated. Degree of synovial inflammation was determined via synovial fluid analysis for WBC count and total protein concentration. Samples of plasma and synovial fluid were analyzed for TA and mepivacaine concentrations.

Results—Each injection of LPS induced lameness and joint inflammation. Mepivacaine effectively eliminated lameness within 45 minutes after injection, regardless of whether TA was also administered, whereas TA reduced lameness, edema, and concentration of synovial fluid protein after the second LPS injection, regardless of whether mepivacaine was also injected. Treatment with TA also induced higher WBC counts and mepivacaine concentrations in synovial fluid, compared with results for mepivacaine alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested TA is a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory medication for acute synovitis in horses and that simultaneous administration of mepivacaine does not alter the potency or duration of action of TA.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effects of exercise on the distribution and pharmacokinetics of technetium Tc 99m medronate (99mTc-MDP) following intra-articular (IA) injection in horses.

Animals—5 horses.

Procedures—1 antebrachiocarpal joint (ACJ)/horse was assigned to the exercised group (n = 5), and the contralateral ACJ was evaluated in the nonexercised group (5) after a minimum washout period of 7 days. Following IA injection of 99mTc-MDP (148 MBq), blood and scintigraphic images of the carpus were obtained at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, 720, and 1,440 minutes. Plasma and scintigraphic radioactivity were determined over time, and pharmacokinetic parameters were generated via noncompartmental and compartmental analyses. Each horse was monitored via physical and lameness examination and ACJ synovial fluid analysis before injection and at days 1, 2, 3, and 7

Results—Lameness was not observed. Mean ± SD synovial fluid WBC count increased at day 1 (exercised, 721 ± 234 cells/μL; nonexercised, 948 ± 223 cells/μL), but returned to baseline at days 3 and 7 Mean time to maximum plasma radioactivity was earlier in the exercised group (16.00 ± 2.35 minutes) than the nonexercised group (43.75 ± 3.64 minutes). Linear regression of the scintigraphic radioactivity-time curves revealed a greater negative slope in the exercised group within the first 25 minutes. There was no difference in absorption or elimination rate constants in a 2-compartment model.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IA injection of 99mTc-MDP was safe and effective for evaluating synovial solute distribution. Exercise significantly increased early transfer of 99mTc-MDP from the ACJ into plasma, although absorption and elimination rate constants were not affected. Exercise may affect synovial clearance and withdrawal times of medications administered IA.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research