Objective—To quantify myocardial contrast enhancement
(MCE) of the left ventricle (LV) by use of cardiac
magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) in healthy cats
and cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
and to compare MCE between the 2 groups.
Animals—10 healthy cats and 26 Maine Coon cats
with moderate to severe HCM but without clinical evidence
of congestive heart failure.
Procedure—Anesthetized cats underwent gradient
echo CMRI examination. Short-axis images of the LV
were acquired before and 7 minutes after IV administration
of gadolinium dimeglumine. Regions of interest
were manually traced in the quadrants of 5 mid-LV
slices acquired at end systole, and the MCE percentage
was calculated from summed weight-averaged
data from all slices. Doppler tissue imaging echocardiography
was performed to measure the early diastolic
myocardial velocity (Em) as an index of diastolic
function. Three-way repeated-measures ANOVA was
used to determine differences in MCE between cats
with HCM and healthy cats. Simple linear regression
was used to assess whether MCE was correlated
with LV mass, LV mass index (LVMI), or Em. A
Student t test was used to compare the SDs of the
postcontrast myocardial signal intensity between the
Results—There was no difference in MCE between
cats with HCM and healthy cats. There was no correlation
of MCE with LV mass, LVMI, or Em. There was
no difference in heterogeneity of signal intensities of
LV myocardium between the 2 groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrastenhancement
CMRI was not useful in detecting diffuse
myocardial fibrosis in cats with HCM. (Am J Vet
Objective—To determine the prevalence and types of tooth resorption in dogs with oral tumors and to compare findings with those for control dogs.
Animals—101 dogs with oral tumors and 128 control dogs that did not have oral tumors and for which dental radiographs were available.
Procedures—Exclusion criteria for dogs included systemic disease, long-term administration of anti-inflammatory drugs, traumatic occlusion, severe semigeneralized or generalized periodontitis, and endodontic disease. For each dog with an oral tumor, histologic sections of biopsy specimens of tumors were examined. Dental radiographic images of dogs were examined, and the presence and type of tooth resorption were determined for each tooth. Statistical analyses were performed to compare data regarding prevalence of tooth resorption.
Results—Teeth at tumor sites in dogs with nonodontogenic tumors were significantly more frequently affected with external inflammatory resorption, compared with teeth at tumor sites in dogs with odontogenic tumors. Teeth at sites distant from tumors in dogs with oral tumors were 3.2 times as likely to have external surface resorption (OR, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 7.9) and 83.4 times as likely to have external inflammatory resorption (OR, 83.4; 95% confidence interval, 9.7 to 719.6) as teeth in control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Resorption of teeth at tumor sites and at sites distant from tumors was common in dogs with oral tumors. Results of the present study will contribute to an understanding of the complex effects of oral tumors on local and distant hard tissues.
Procedures—Cats were treated orally with famciclovir (90 mg/kg; n = 10) or a similar volume of lactose (400 mg; 6) 3 times/d for 21 days. Cats were inoculated with FHV-1 and administered the first treatment dose on day 0. Disease score; weight; results of urinalysis, serum biochemical analysis, and CBC; histologic conjunctivitis score; herpetic DNA shedding; goblet cell density; anti-FHV-1 antibody concentration; and plasma penciclovir concentration were measured.
Results—On days 4 to 18 following inoculation, disease scores were lower in famciclovir-treated cats than in lactose-treated cats. Lactose-treated cats decreased in weight during the first 7 days after inoculation, but famciclovir-treated cats increased in weight throughout the study. Percentage change in weight was greater in famciclovir-treated cats on days 7 and 14 than in lactose-treated cats. Serum globulin concentration was lower on days 3 through 9, conjunctivitis histologic score was lower on day 14, herpetic DNA was shed less frequently throughout the study, goblet cell density was greater on day 21, and circulating anti-FHV-1 antibody concentration at study end was lower in famciclovir-treated cats, compared with these measurements in lactose-treated cats. Approximate peak plasma penciclovir concentration was 2.0 μg/mL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Famciclovir administration improved outcomes for systemic, ophthalmic, clinicopathologic, virologic, and histologic variables in cats experimentally infected with FHV-1. Adjunctive topical mucinomimetic and antimicrobial treatments may also be necessary.
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of 2 doses of a concentrated buprenorphine formulation after SC administration to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).
ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks.
PROCEDURES Concentrated buprenorphine (0.3 mg/kg, SC) was administered to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points over 24 hours after drug administration to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. After a 4-week washout period, the same birds received the same formulation at a higher dose (1.8 mg/kg, SC), and blood samples were collected at 13 time points over 96 hours. Hawks were monitored for adverse effects and assigned agitation-sedation scores at each sample collection time. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.
RESULTS Mean time to maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was 7.2 minutes and 26.1 minutes after administration of the 0.3-mg/kg and 1.8-mg/kg doses, respectively. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for mean durations of 24 and 48 hours after low- and high-dose administration, respectively. Mean elimination half-life was 6.23 hours for the low dose and 7.84 hours for the high dose. Mean agitation-sedation scores were higher (indicating some degree of sedation) than the baseline values for 24 hours at both doses. No clinically important adverse effects were observed.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Concentrated buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and plasma drug concentrations considered to have analgesic effects in other raptor species were maintained for extended periods. Most birds had mild to moderate sedation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of these doses of concentrated buprenorphine in red-tailed hawks.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic yield of dental radiography (Rad method) and 3 cone-beam CT (CBCT) methods for the identification of predefined anatomic landmarks in brachycephalic dogs.
ANIMALS 19 client-owned brachycephalic dogs admitted for evaluation and treatment of dental disease.
PROCEDURES 26 predefined anatomic landmarks were evaluated separately by use of the RAD method and 3 CBCT software modules (serial CBCT slices and custom cross sections, tridimensional rendering, and reconstructed panoramic views). A semiquantitative scoring system was used, and mean scores were calculated for each anatomic landmark and imaging method. The Friedman test was used to evaluate values for significant differences in diagnostic yield. For values that were significant, the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used with the Bonferroni-Holm multiple comparison adjustment to determine significant differences among each of the 6 possible pairs of diagnostic methods.
RESULTS Differences of diagnostic yield among the Rad and 3 CBCT methods were significant for 19 of 26 anatomic landmarks. For these landmarks, Rad scores were significantly higher than scores for reconstructed panoramic views for 4 of 19 anatomic landmarks, but Rad scores were significantly lower than scores for reconstructed panoramic views for 8 anatomic landmarks, tridimensional rendering for 18 anatomic landmarks, and serial CBCT slices and custom cross sections for all 19 anatomic landmarks.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CBCT methods were better suited than dental radiography for the identification of anatomic landmarks in brachycephalic dogs. Results of this study can serve as a basis for CBCT evaluation of dental disorders in brachycephalic dogs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic yield of dental radiography (Rad method) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) methods for the identification of 31 predefined dental disorders in brachycephalic dogs.
ANIMALS 19 client-owned brachycephalic dogs admitted for evaluation and treatment of dental disease.
PROCEDURES 31 predefined dental disorders were evaluated separately and scored by use of dental radiography and 3 CBCT software modules (serial CBCT slices and custom cross sections, tridimensional rendering, and reconstructed panoramic views). A qualitative scoring system was used. Dental disorders were grouped into 10 categories for statistical analysis. Point of reference for presence or absence of a dental disorder was determined as the method that could be used to clearly identify the disorder as being present. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated with the McNemar χ2 test of marginal homogeneity of paired data.
RESULTS When all 3 CBCT methods were used in combination, the diagnostic yield of CBCT was significantly higher than that of dental radiography for 4 of 10 categories (abnormal eruption, abnormally shaped roots, periodontitis, and tooth resorption) and higher, although not significantly so, for all categories, except for 1 (loss of tooth integrity).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CBCT provided more detailed information than did dental radiography. Therefore, CBCT would be better suited for use in diagnosing dental disorders in brachycephalic dogs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of administration of a 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant on egg laying in healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).
ANIMALS 52 cockatiels.
PROCEDURES 26 breeding pairs (a female and its respective male in each pair) were selected on the basis of their history of egg laying. Female birds were sedated and received a 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant (n = 13) or placebo implant (13) in the subcutaneous tissues between the scapulae. Male and female birds of each breeding pair were placed in separate but adjacent cages. Birds were exposed to 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness. A nest box was placed in cages of female birds to stimulate reproductive activity. Egg production and quality were monitored daily for 365 days.
RESULTS Deslorelin acetate implants significantly suppressed egg laying in cockatiels, compared with effects for the placebo implants. Eleven of 13 placeboimplanted birds laid eggs between 12 and 42 days after implantation. None of the deslorelin-implanted birds laid eggs within 180 days after implantation, and only 5 of 13 deslorelin-implanted birds laid an egg during the study period (first egg laid between 192 and 230 days after implantation). No differences in egg quality or number of eggs per clutch were observed between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Insertion of a 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant suppressed egg laying in healthy cockatiels for at least 180 days. Studies are necessary to evaluate effects of a deslorelin acetate implant in other avian species or in association with reproductive disorders.
Objective—To measure the dimensions of the eyes of living snakes by use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging and correlate those measurements with age, length, and weight.
Animals—14 clinically normal snakes.
Procedures—Species, age, length, weight, and horizontal spectacle diameter were recorded, and each snake underwent physical and ophthalmic examinations; ultrasonographic examination of both eyes was performed by use of a commercially available ultrasound unit and a 50-MHz transducer. Ultrasonographic measurements included spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous cavity depth, and globe length. All measurements were made along the visual axis.
Results—2 corn snakes, 5 California king snakes, 1 gopher snake, and 6 ball pythons were examined. There were no significant differences within or between the species with regard to mean spectacle thickness, corneal thickness, or subspectacular space depth. However, mean horizontal spectacle diameter, anterior chamber depth, and axial globe length differed among the 4 species; for each measurement, ball pythons had significantly larger values than California king snakes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Spectacle thickness, subspectacular space depth, and corneal thickness were similar among the species of snake examined and did not vary significantly with age, length, or weight. Measurements of these dimensions can potentially serve as baseline values to evaluate snakes of these species with a retained spectacle, subspectacular abscess, or subspectacular fluid accumulation. Anterior chamber depth and axial length appeared variable among species, but axial length did not vary with age, length, or weight in the species studied.
OBJECTIVE To investigate renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects associated with oral administration of multiple doses of meloxicam to healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
ANIMALS 12 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive meloxicam oral suspension (1.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and 2.5 mL of tap water inserted into the crop by use of a gavage tube (n = 8) or the equivalent volume of tap water only (control group; 4) for 15 days. Urine and feces were collected 2 hours after treatment administration each day. Feces were evaluated for occult blood. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis and measured N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and whole blood clotting time were evaluated before, during, and after completion of treatments. Results of urinalysis and measured urine NAG activity were also evaluated.
RESULTS Birds treated with meloxicam had a significant increase in number of WBCs and decrease in PCV from before to after treatment. The PCV also decreased significantly, compared with results for the control group; however, WBC count and PCV for all birds remained within reference ranges throughout the study. One parrot treated with meloxicam had a single high value for urine NAG activity.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Meloxicam administered orally at the dosage used in this study caused no apparent negative changes in several renal, gastrointestinal, or hemostatic variables in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Additional studies to evaluate adverse effects of NSAIDs in birds will be needed.
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects following SC administration of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) in New Zealand White rabbits.
ANIMALS 6 adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits.
PROCEDURES Each rabbit was administered 40 mg of CCFA/kg SC. A blood sample was obtained immediately before (0 minutes), at 5 and 30 minutes after, and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 95, 120, 144, and 168 hours after administration, and plasma concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents (CFAE) were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. For each rabbit, body weight, food consumption, fecal output, and injection site were monitored. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for 293 bacterial isolates from rabbit clinical samples were determined.
RESULTS Mean ± SD peak plasma concentration of CFAE and time to maximum plasma concentration were 33.13 ± 10.15 μg/mL and 1.75 ± 0.42 hours, respectively. The mean terminal half-life of CFAE was 42.6 ± 5.2 hours. Plasma CFAE concentration was > 4 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours and > 1 μg/mL for at least 72 hours after CCFA administration. An apparently nonpainful subcutaneous nodule developed at the injection site in 3 of 6 rabbits.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that CCFA (40 mg/kg) could be administered SC every 24 to 72 hours to New Zealand White rabbits to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Single-dose administration of CCFA resulted in minimal adverse effects. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effects of repeated CCFA administration in New Zealand White rabbits.