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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate quality of duodenal tissue specimens obtained endoscopically from dogs and cats and submitted to 1 of 2 diagnostic laboratories for evaluation.

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—Slides from 50 consecutive canine and 50 consecutive feline endoscopically obtained duodenal tissue specimens submitted to laboratory 1 and 49 consecutive canine and 46 consecutive feline specimens submitted to laboratory 2.

Procedure—Slides were examined independently by 3 investigators, and each tissue piece on each slide was classified as clearly inadequate, questionable, or clearly adequate on the basis of 4 criteria. An overall score was then assigned to the slide.

Results—Slides from laboratory 1 were more likely to be scored as clearly adequate and less likely to be scored as clearly inadequate than slides from laboratory 2. Clearly adequate slides from laboratory 1 had a higher number of clearly adequate pieces of tissue than did clearly adequate slides from laboratory 2. Slides scored as clearly adequate had a higher number of individual tissue pieces than did slides scored as clearly inadequate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the quality of endoscopically obtained duodenal tissue specimens submitted to laboratories can vary, possibly because of differences in experience of individuals collecting biopsy specimens. Results suggest that at least 8 individual tissue pieces should be submitted when performing endoscopic biopsy of the duodenum in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:474–479)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify protective equine rotavirus group A (ERVA) VP8 epitopes and demonstrate that immunizing hens with synthetic peptides based on these epitopes would yield high-titered, neutralizing egg yolk antibodies for potential application in foals.

ANIMALS

26 rotavirus-positive, client-owned foals were included in the study. Five white leghorn hens were used for antibody production.

METHODS

Chicken antibodies were raised against 3 synthetic epitope peptides from the VP8 protein of the common ERVA P-type, P4[12] using CD40-targeted streptavidin-peptide complexes. Antipeptide serum- and egg yolk antibodies were subject to ELISA and in vitro virus neutralization assays to evaluate binding and neutralization activities. Lyophilized anti-VP8 egg yolk antibodies were orally administered (30 g; q 24 h for 5 days) to foals with rotaviral diarrhea. Physical examinations were performed daily. The duration of diarrhea and any adverse effects were recorded.

RESULTS

CD40-targeted vaccination of hens generated high titers of anti-VP8 serum and egg yolk antibodies after just 3 immunizations. These antibodies prevented in vitro infection of ERVA with titers of 128 in the serum and 94.5 in the yolk. Oral administration (30 g; q 24 h for 5 days) of lyophilized hyperimmune egg yolk to foals with rotaviral diarrhea did not reveal any adverse effects of the treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study demonstrated that antibodies raised against neutralizing epitopes of the ERVA VP8 protein could prevent ERVA infection in vitro. Based on these results and previous work in other animals, in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of anti-VP8 egg yolk antibodies is warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors associated with development of postoperative ileus in horses undergoing surgery for colic.

Design—Case-control study

Animals—69 horses that developed ileus after surgery for colic and 307 horses that did not develop postoperative ileus.

Procedure—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic data, treatment, lesions, and outcome were obtained from medical records.

Results—Variables associated with increased risk of postoperative ileus included age > 10 years, Arabian breed, PCV ≥ 45%, high serum concentrations of protein and albumin, anesthesia > 2.5 hours' duration, surgery > 2 hours' duration, resection and anastomosis, and lesions in the small intestine. Enterotomy reduced the risk of postoperative ileus. After multivariate logistic regression, the final model included the variables Arabian breed, PCV ≥ 45%, lesion type, duration of surgery (> 2 hours vs ≤ 2 hours), and pelvic flexure enterotomy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that by evaluating certain factors, horses at increased risk of postoperative ileus may be recognized before the condition develops. Preventative treatment and early intervention may be instituted in these horses. Shortening surgery time and performing an enterotomy may decrease the probability of horses developing postoperative ileus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:72–78)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate pharmacokinetics of a high dose of gentamicin administered IV or IM to horses.

Design—

Repeated-measures study.

Animals—

6 clinically normal female adult stock-type horses.

Procedure—

All horses were given gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg [3 mg/lb] of body weight), IV and IM, in a two-way cross-over design. Serum gentamicin concentrations were measured during a 24-hour period.

Results—

Plasma concentration curves were consistent with a two-compartment model. Maximum plasma gentamicin concentrations were 71.9 ± 15.7 μg/ml (0 hours after injection) and 22.0 ± 4.9 μg/ml (1.31 hours after injection) for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) was 116.6 ± 14.5 and 116.3 ± 14.6 μg•h/ml for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Elimination half-life for the IV group was 3.0 ± 2.8 hours. Trough concentrations were < 2 μg/ml for > 15 and > 12 hours for the IV and IM groups, respectively. Significant changes were not detected in clinicopathologic variables before and after administration of gentamicin.

Clinical Implications—

Administration of a high dose of gentamicin IV or IM resulted in peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and minimum trough plasma concentrations. Results indicate once-daily administration of gentamicin might be as efficacious and safe as multiple-dose daily administration in accordance with traditional low-dose regimens, similar to those used in other species. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1007-1011)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the frequency and anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries incurred by Quarter Horses during races and to compare data from injured horses and matched control horses.

Design

Matched case-control study.

Animals

97 Quarter Horses that sustained a musculoskeletal injury during races and 291 horses from the same races that were not injured.

Procedure

Data examined included racing history, race-entrant characteristics, racing events determined by analysis of videotapes of races, and, when performed, results of prerace physical inspections. Data for injured horses were compared with data for control horses, using conditional logistic regression.

Results

Incidence of a catastrophic injury among Quarter Horses during races was approximately 0.8/1,000 race starts, whereas incidence of musculoskeletal injury during racing was approximately 2.2/1,000 race starts. Odds of musculoskeletal injury were approximately 8 times greater among horses assessed to be at increased risk of injury on the basis of results of prerace physical inspection than for horses not considered to be at increased risk of injury. Evidence was lacking that 2-year-old horses were at increased risk of injury or that sex influenced the risk of injury among Quarter Horses during races.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Incidence of racing injury among Quarter Horses appears to be lower than that observed among Thoroughbreds. Regulatory veterinarians can identify horses at increased risk of injury on the basis of prerace physical inspection, indicating that these inspections could be used to reduce the risk of injury during races. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:662–669)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To estimate the relative risk of injury among horses deemed to be at increased risk of injury on the basis of prerace physical inspection findings and to examine the association of injury during races with race-related characteristics.

Design

Cohort study.

Animals

2,187 Thoroughbred horses that started 3,227 races in Kentucky.

Procedure

All race starts for which a horse was deemed to be at increased risk of injury on the basis of prerace physical inspection findings and a random sample of race starts for which horses were not deemed at increased risk of injury were included in the study. Findings of prerace physical inspection, racerelated characteristics, and outcome of the race (race results and whether the horse incurred an injury) were recorded for each race start. Race starts in which a horse incurred an injury during a race were compared with race starts in which injuries were not incurred to identify factors associated with injury during races.

Results

Abnormality of the suspensory ligament of the forelimbs detected during prerace physical inspection, racetrack, class of race (claiming race ≤ $25,000 vs other classes), and distance of race (< 7 furlongs vs other distances) were significantly associated with increased risk of injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Prerace physical inspection findings, particularly abnormalities of the suspensory ligament, may be used to identify horses at increased risk of injury during races. Rate of injury differed among racetracks, and horses in certain types of races (lower-priced claiming races and races of shorter distance) may be at increased risk of injury during races. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:654–661)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare the sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with microbiological culture for detecting salmonellae in equine fecal samples and equine environmental swab specimens.

Design

Samples and specimens were tested by PCR and microbiological culture.

Sample Population

A fecal sample from each of 152 horses admitted consecutively to the clinic for evaluation by the outpatient service, 282 fecal samples from 110 hospitalized horses that had been submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory, and 313 environmental swab specimens were examined.

Procedure

Each sample and specimen in the study was tested, using PCR and microbiological culture. Results of PCR and culture were compared.

Results

Significantly (P < 0.001) more fecal samples were positive by PCR than by microbiological culture. 26 of 152 (17.1%) fecal samples collected from horses admitted by the outpatient service were positive by PCR and none was positive by culture. 71 of 110 hospitalized horses were identified as positive by PCR, compared with 11 horses identified as positive by culture. All culture-positive horses were positive by PCR. Of the 11 culture-positive horses, 10 (90.9%) were identified as PCR positive after testing of the first sample submitted, compared with 7 (63.6%) by culture. All PCR-positive horses were detected after a total of 3 samples/horse were submitted, whereas as many as 5 samples/horse was required to identify all culture-positive horses. 8 of 313 environmental specimens were positive by PCR, and none was positive by culture.

Conclusion

The PCR method reported here was more sensitive, more rapid, and required submission of fewer samples or specimens than did microbiological culture for detecting salmonellae. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:780–786)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The association between various management factors and development of colic was studied in 821 horses treated for colic and 821 control horses treated for noncolic emergencies by practicing veterinarians in Texas between Oct 1, 1991 and Dec 31, 1992. History of previous colic and history of previous abdominal surgery were found to be significantly associated with colic. Change in stabling conditions during the 2 weeks prior to the time of examination, recent change in diet, and recent change in level of activity significantly increased the risk for development of colic. Changes in activity level, diet, and stabling conditions were identified as potentially alterable risk factors for colic. Logistic regression was used to adjust for the effects of all variables found to be significantly associated with colic by means of univariate analysis, and only history of previous colic, history of previous abdominal surgery, and history of recent change in diet remained significantly associated with colic. Results of this study indicate that a proportion of colic cases might be prevented by minimizing changes in management practices.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Members of the genus Salmonella were identified in feces from horses, using the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and genus-specific oligonucleotide primers. Feces from healthy horses were determined to be culture-negative for Salmonella spp. Fecal samples were inoculated with known numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) of S anatum, S derby, S enteritidis, S heidelberg, S newport, and S typhimurium. The dna was extracted from fecal samples and amplified by pcr, using genus-specific primers. Sensitivity of the assay extended to 103 cfu of Salmonella sp/g of feces; sensitivity of microbiologic culture with enrichment extended to 102 cfu of Salmonella sp/g of feces. Feces that were not inoculated with Salmonella spp were negative by the pcr. Detection of salmonellae in feces was possible, using the pcr, within 10 to 12 hours from the time of submission of samples.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The medical records of 25 horses with septic tenosynovitis treated over 7 years (1983 to 1989) were reviewed to determine clinical features of the disease and response to treatment. The median age of horses with septic tenosynovitis was 5 years (range, 1 month to 21 years). Fourteen fore limbs and 11 hind limbs were affected.

Sepsis was located in the sheath of the digital flexor tendons of 22 horses. Sepsis was located in the sheath of the extensor carpi radialis tendon (1 horse), sheath of the long digital extensor tendon (1 horse), or sheath of the common digital extensor tendon (1 horse) in the remaining horses.

Nine horses received only medical treatment, using a combination of broad-spectrum parenterally administered antimicrobial drugs (8 of 9 horses), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (8 of 9 horses), or irrigation of the wound (4 of 9 horses). Fourteen horses were treated surgically with either transection of the palmar/plantar annular ligament of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint (5 of 14 horses), lavage of the sheath after insertion of drains into the sheath (7 of 14 horses), or both (2 of 14 horses). All horses treated surgically were concurrently treated parenterally with broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Two horses with septic tenosynovitis were not treated and were euthanatized at the owners' request.

Five horses were euthanatized before discharge from the hospital. Two horses (both treated medically) were lost to follow-up. Follow-up information was obtained for 18 horses, 6 to 55 months after discharge from the hospital. Of the 5 horses treated medically for which follow-up was available, 4 returned to their intended use (3 performance, 1 breeding), and 1 was being used for breeding rather than as intended for performance.

Of the 13 horses treated surgically, for which long-term follow-up information was available, 6 returned to their intended use (3 performance, 3 breeding), 3 were unable to return to their intended use (performance), and 4 horses used for performance prior to injury were retired for breeding.

Overall, 18 of the 23 horses (78%) for which long-term follow-up was available survived >6 months after discharge from the hospital. Ten of these horses (56%) returned to their intended use (6 performance and 4 breeding).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association