Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 64 of 64 items for

  • Author or Editor: Lisa A. Fortier x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


OBJECTIVE To determine morphological characteristics of subchondral bone cysts (SBCs) in medial femoral condyles (MFCs) of adult horses with orthopedic disease.

SAMPLE CT scans of 7 MFCs with SBCs from 6 adult horses.

PROCEDURES CT was used to determine the volume, surface area, and centers of the articular cyst opening and SBC in each MFC. Cysts were ordered from smallest to largest on the basis of volume. Osseous pathological characteristics of the MFC were assessed in the frontal plane. Three-dimensional distance of displacement between the center of the articular cyst opening and center of the cyst was determined for each SBC. Cyst surface area-to-volume ratio was evaluated and compared with that of a true sphere.

RESULTS All SBCs had a defect in the subchondral bone plate at the cranial 15% to 20% of the MFC. Cyst center was located in a caudal, proximal, and abaxial direction with respect to the center of the articular cyst opening for each horse. Small- and intermediate-volume SBCs were irregular and multilobulated, whereas large-volume SBCs were smooth and discrete with a surface area-to-volume ratio approaching that of a sphere.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Consistency in morphological characteristics suggested a common etiopathogenesis for SBCs in MFCs of adult horses. Cyst enlargement may have been attributable to a biomechanical predisposition to decrease the surface area-to-volume ratio, resulting in a spherical cyst.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To identify chondroprotective factors as potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis treatments using an unbiased, bottom-up proteomics approach.


Paired equine cartilage explants and synovial membrane were collected postmortem from 4 horses with no history of lameness and grossly normal joints at necropsy.


Six groups were established: cartilage, synoviocytes, and cartilage + synoviocytes (coculture), all with or without interleukin (IL)-1β. The catabolic effect of IL-1β was verified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) released from cartilage into media by 1,9-dimethyl-methylene blue assay and cartilage toluidine blue histochemistry. Conditioned media from cocultures with or with IL-1β were submitted for bottom-up proteomic analysis. Synoviocyte gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcription–quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for proteins of interest identified in the proteomics scan.


GAG content was retained in cartilage when in cocultures treated with IL-1β. Fourteen proteins of interest were selected from the proteomic analysis. From these 14 proteins, metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 precursor (TIMP3), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 11B (TNFRSF11B), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), and alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) were selected for synoviocyte gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR. Gene expression of TIMP3 (P = .02) and TNFRSF11B (P = .04) were significantly increased in synoviocytes from cocultures treated with IL-1β compared to controls. Contrary to expectations based on protein expression, IGFBP2 gene expression (P = .04) was significantly decreased in IL-1β-stimulated coculture synoviocytes compared to control coculture synoviocytes. A2M gene expression in synoviocytes was not different between coculture groups.


The secretome from synoviocytes could provide a milieu of bioactive factors to restore joint homeostasis in osteoarthritis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research