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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available ELISA kit for detecting antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferiin dogs.

Sample Population—Banked sera from 440 military working dogs were used for serologic analyses.

Procedure—Serum samples were analyzed for antibodies against B burgdorferi by use of a commercially available ELISA and subsequently by western blot analysis as a confirmatory test.

Results—Results from the ELISA indicated that 89 (20%) samples were positive for exposure to B burgdorferi or canine Lyme disease vaccine, and 351 (80%) were negative. Follow-up testing by western blot analysis indicated that results for 109 (25%) samples were positive and 331 (75%) were negative for exposure. All samples that had positive results on the ELISA also had positive results on western blot analysis (true positives). Of the 351 samples that had negative results on the ELISA, only 331 had negative results on western blot analysis (true negatives). The remaining 20 samples had positive results on western blot analysis. By use of a standard 2 X 2 table, it was determined that the ELISA had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 94%.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The commercial ELISA kit evaluated in this study appeared to lack adequate sensitivity for detecting all potential cases of borreliosis in dogs. The ELISA was also unable to discriminate natural exposure from exposure attributable to vaccination, which could complicate interpretation of positive results and treatment of dogs with clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1418–1422)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of heparin administration on urine protein excretion during the developmental stages of experimentally induced laminitis in horses.

Animals—13 horses.

Procedures—Horses received unfractionated heparin (80 U/kg, SC, q 8 h; n = 7) or no treatment (control group; 6) beginning 3 days prior to induction of laminitis. All horses were given 3 oligofructose loading doses (1 g/kg each) at 24-hour intervals and a laminitis induction dose (10 g of oligofructose/kg) 24 hours following the final loading dose (designated as 0 hours) via nasogastric tube. Serum glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before administration of the first loading dose (baseline) and at 0 and 24 hours; urine protein-to-creatinine (UP:C) ratio was determined at 0 hours and every 4 hours thereafter. Lameness was evaluated every 6 hours, and horses were euthanized when Obel grade 2 ameness was observed.

Results—Mean ± SD time until euthanasia did not differ significantly between the heparin-treated (28.9 ± 6.5 hours) and control (29.0 ± 6.9 hours) horses. The UP:C ratio was significantly increased from baseline at 20 to 28 hours after induction of laminitis (ie, 4 ± 4 hours before lameness was evident) in control horses but did not change significantly from baseline in heparin-treated horses. Serum glucose or insulin concentration did not change significantly from baseline in either group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urine protein excretion increased during the developmental stages of carbohydrate-induced laminitis in horses; administration of heparin prevented that increase, but did not delay onset or decrease severity of lameness.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare time to achieve vascular access (TTVA) between an ultrasound-guided technique (UST) and landmark-based technique (LMT) for central venous catheter (CVC) placement in healthy anesthetized dogs.

ANIMALS 39 purpose-bred hounds.

PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs that were hemodynamically stable following completion of a terminal surgical exercise were enrolled in the study during 2 phases, with a 45-day intermission between phases. For each dog, a UST and LMT were used for CVC placement via each external jugular vein by 2 operators (criticalist and resident). The TTVA and number of venipuncture attempts and catheter redirections were recorded for each catheterization. Placement of the CVC was confirmed by contrast fluoroscopy. After euthanasia, a gross dissection was performed during which a hematoma score was assigned to the catheter insertion site. For each phase, nonlinear least squares estimation was used for learning curve analysis of the UST.

RESULTS Median TTVA, number of venipuncture attempts and catheter redirections, and hematoma score did not differ significantly between the 2 operators for either technique. Median TTVA for the UST (45 seconds) was significantly longer than that for the LMT (7 seconds). Learning curve analysis indicated that 8 and 7 UST catheterizations were required to achieve performance stability in phases 1 and 2, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the UST was comparable to the LMT for CVC placement in healthy dogs. The extra time required to perform the UST was not clinically relevant. Additional studies evaluating the UST for CVC placement in clinically ill dogs are warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas.

ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas.

PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mm). Five images (2 molar, 2 premolar, and mandibular incisor teeth) were selected from each protocol for evaluation by 3 veterinary radiologists. For each image, tooth root visibility and sharpness and image noise artifact were subjectively evaluated on a 3-point scoring system.

RESULTS Slice thickness significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness but did not affect image noise artifact. Acquisition mode significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness as well as image noise artifact. Tooth root visibility and sharpness did not differ significantly between the helical and sequential images when the slice thickness was 1.25 mm. Image noise artifact was greater for helical images than sequential images but did not differ by slice thickness within either acquisition mode.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for a 64-slice CT scanner, the optimal protocol for the acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas was a sequential scan with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections in pet cats in the United States and identify risk factors for parasitism.

Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.

Study Population—356,086 cats examined at 359 private veterinary hospitals during 2003.

Procedure—Electronic medical records were searched to identify cats for which fecal flotation tests had been performed and to determine proportions of test results positive for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. Potential risk factors for roundworm and hookworm infection were identified by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results—A total of 80,278 tests were performed on fecal samples from 66,819 cats. Calculated prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infection were 2.92%, 0.63%, and 0.031%, respectively. Age, reproductive status, breed, and season were significant risk factors for roundworm infection, with cats < 4 years old; sexually intact cats; mixed-breed cats; and cats examined during the summer, fall, or winter more likely to be infected. Age, reproductive status, and season were significant risk factors for hookworm infection, with cats < 1 year old, sexually intact cats, and cats examined during the summer more likely to be infected. Regional differences in prevalences of roundworm and hookworm infection were found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that prevalences of nematode infections among pet cats in the United States may be lower than previously suspected on the basis of prevalences reported among cats in humane shelters and those reported in more geographically focused studies.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ultrasonographically measured optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and acute increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) as measured by an epidural intracranial pressure monitoring system (EICPMS) in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS 6 young healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES An EICPMS connected to a pressure monitor was used to generate a continuous pressure waveform in each anesthetized dog. A 22-gauge IV catheter was inserted into the brain parenchyma through the contralateral parietal bone, and 0.5 to 2.0 mL of anticoagulated autologous blood was injected at predetermined intervals. At baseline (immediately after EICPMS placement) and following each injection, the ICP as indicated by EICPMS was recorded, and 3 ultrasonographic images of the optic nerve sheath of each eye were obtained. The ONSD was measured at maximum diameter and at 5 mm caudal to the optic disk.

RESULTS In linear models, the maximum ONSD was positively associated with increasing ICP. Specifically, the rate of maximum ONSD increase was greater for pressures ≤ 20 mm Hg above baseline (0.0534 mm/1 mm Hg ICP increase) than for pressures > 40 mm Hg above baseline (0.0087 mm/1 mm Hg ICP increase). The relationship of ICP to maximum ONSD was slightly nonlinear and best explained by comparison of fractional polynomial regression models.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ICP was positively and nonlinearly associated with increasing maximum ONSD, especially when ICP was ≤ 20 mm Hg above baseline, supporting the conclusion that ultrasonographic measurement of maximum ONSD may provide a noninvasive monitoring tool for evaluation of ICP in dogs. Further research is needed to assess the utility of these measurements in clinical patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by West Nile virus (WNV) in horses in northern Indiana.

Design—Case series.

Animals—170 horses.

Procedure—Horses with clinical signs suggestive of encephalomyelitis caused by WNV were examined. Date, age, sex, breed, and survival status were recorded. Serum samples were tested for anti-WNV antibodies, and virus isolation was attempted from samples of brain tissue. Climate data from local weather recording stations were collected. An epidemic curve was constructed, and case fatality rate was calculated.

Results—The most common clinical signs were ataxia, hind limb paresis, and muscle tremors and fasciculations. Eight horses had been vaccinated against WNV from 2 to 21 days prior to the appearance of clinical signs. West Nile virus was isolated from brain tissue of 2 nonvaccinated horses, and anti-WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 132 nonvaccinated horses; in 2 other nonvaccinated horses, anti-WNV antibodies were detected and WNV was also isolated from brain tissue. Thirty-one (22.8%) horses died or were euthanatized. The peak of the outbreak occurred on September 6, 2002. Ambient temperatures were significantly lower after the peak of the outbreak, compared with prior to the peak.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The peak risk period for encephalomyelitis caused by WNV in northern Indiana was mid-August to mid-September. Reduction in cases coincided with decreasing ambient temperatures. Because of a substantial case fatality rate, owners of horses in northern Indiana should have their horses fully protected by vaccination against WNV before June. In other regions of the United States with a defined mosquito breeding season, vaccination of previously nonvaccinated horses should commence at least 4 months before the anticipated peak in seasonal mosquito numbers, and for previously vaccinated horses, vaccine should be administered no later than 2 months before this time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:84–89)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence rates and potential risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in dogs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary hospitals.

Procedure—Electronic records from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3 days of vaccine administration. Information included age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random sample of 400 affected dogs. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression.

Results—4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs vaccinated) were associated with administration of 3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9 months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccine doses administered per office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in dogs ≤ 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors should be considered in risk assessment and risk communication with clients regarding vaccination. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1102–1108)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association