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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical safety of administration of injectable enrofloxacin.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—24 adult horses.

Procedures—Healthy horses were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups that received placebo injections (control) or IV administration of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], 15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], or 25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb] of body weight, q 24 h) for 21 days. Joint angles, cross-sectional area of superficial and deep digital flexor and calcaneal tendons, carpal or tarsal osteophytes or lucency, and midcarpal and tarsocrural articular cartilage lesions were measured. Physical and lameness examinations were performed daily. Measurements were repeated after day 21, and articular cartilage and bone biopsy specimens were examined.

Results—Enrofloxacin did not induce changes in most variables during administration or for 7 days after administration. One horse (dosage, 15 mg/kg) developed lameness and cellulitis around the tarsal plantar ligament during the last week of administration. One horse (dosage, 15 mg/kg) developed mild superficial digital flexor tendinitis, and 1 horse (dosage, 25 mg/kg) developed tarsal sheath effusion without lameness 3 days after the last administration. High doses of enrofloxacin (15 and 25 mg/kg) administered by bolus injection intermittently induced transient neurologic signs that completely resolved within 10 minutes without long-term effects. Slower injection and dilution of the dose ameliorated the neurologic signs. Adverse reactions were not detected with a 5 mg/kg dose administered IV as a bolus.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enrofloxacin administered IV once daily at the rate of 5 mg/kg for 3 weeks is safe in adult horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1514–1521)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To evaluate the clinical, laboratory, and histologic effects of 2 methods of treatment for infectious arthritis in horses, Staphylococcus aureus (3.4 to 3.9 × 103 colony-forming units) was inoculated into the tarsocrural joints of 8 horses on day 0. Each horse was treated with phenylbutazone (2 g, po, q 24 h) and gentamicin sulfate (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, iv, q 8 h) for 14 days. On day 2, general anesthesia was induced, and each horse had 1 tarsocrural joint treated by arthrotomy, with removal of accessible fibrin and lavage with 3 L of sterile balanced electrolyte solution. An indwelling plastic drain was placed in the standing horse to provide a means for lavage with 3 L of balanced electrolyte solution twice daily for 72 hours. The contralateral tarsocrural joint was treated via arthroscopic debridement, synovectomy, and lavage with 3 L of balanced electrolyte solution. Arthrotomy and arthroscopic portals were allowed to heal by second intention. Lameness and thermographic examinations, analysis and bacteriologic culture of synovia, cbc, and wbc differential count were performed prior to inoculation and on days 1, 3, 6, 8, and 13. On day 14, each horse was euthanatized, and the joints were measured, opened, and photographed. Synovium and articular cartilage were obtained for semiquantitative histologic (H&E stain) and histochemical (safranin O fast green stain) evaluation. Lameness and joint circumference were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in limbs treated by arthroscopy, synovectomy, and lavage. Arthrotomy with lavage eliminated the S aureus infection significantly (P < 0.05) earlier than arthroscopy, synovectomy, and lavage; however, both treatments eliminated the infection in all but a single joint. Contamination with other organisms (Streptococcus spp and Enterobacter spp) developed significantly (P < 0.05) more often in joints treated by arthrotomy. These results suggested that arthrotomy with lavage was more effective in eliminating joint infection by providing better drainage than arthroscopy, synovectomy, and lavage; however, arthrotomy had a higher risk of ascending bacterial contamination of the joint.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine efficacy of a single intra-articular injection of an autologous platelet concentrate for treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.

Design—Randomized, controlled, 2-center clinical trial.

Animals—20 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis involving a single joint.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. In all dogs, severity of lameness and pain was scored by owners with the Hudson visual analog scale and the University of Pennsylvania Canine Brief Pain Inventory, respectively, and peak vertical force (PVF) was determined with a force platform. Dogs in the treatment group were then sedated, and a blood sample (55 mL) was obtained. Platelets were recovered by means of a point-of-use filter and injected intra-articularly within 30 minutes. Control dogs were sedated and given an intra-articular injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Assessments were repeated 12 weeks after injection of platelets or saline solution.

Results—Dogs weighed between 18.3 and 63.9 kg (40.3 and 140.6 lb) and ranged from 1.5 to 8 years old. For control dogs, lameness scores, pain scores, and PVF at week 12 were not significantly different from pretreatment values. In contrast, for dogs that received platelet injections, lameness scores (55% decrease in median score), pain scores (53% decrease in median score), and PVF (12% increase in mean PVF) were significantly improved after 12 weeks, compared with pretreatment values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a single intra-articular injection of autologous platelets resulted in significant improvements at 12 weeks in dogs with osteoarthritis involving a single joint.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion.

Results—Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association