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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the perioperative characteristics and outcomes of dogs undergoing laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy (LAS).

ANIMALS

136 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Multicentric retrospective study. Medical records of dogs undergoing LAS for treatment of naturally occurring splenic disease from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2020, were reviewed. History, signalment, physical examination and preoperative diagnostic test results, procedural information, complications, duration of hospitalization, histopathologic diagnosis, and perioperative outcomes were recorded. Perioperative complications were defined using the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group – Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (VCOG-CTCAE v2) guidelines.

RESULTS

LAS was performed for treatment of a splenic mass (124/136 [91%]), immune-mediated disease (7/136 [5%]), splenomegaly (4/136 [3%]), or immune-mediated disease in conjunction with a splenic mass (1/136 [1%]). Median splenic mass size was 1.3 cm3/kg body weight. Conversion to open laparotomy occurred in 5.9% (8/136) of dogs. Complications occurred in 78 dogs, with all being grade 2 or lower. Median surgical time was 47 minutes, and median postoperative hospital stay was 28 hours. All but 1 dog survived to discharge, the exception being postoperative death due to a suspected portal vein thrombus.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In the dogs of this report, LAS was associated with low rates of major complications, morbidity, and mortality when performed for a variety of splenic pathologies. Minimally invasive surgeons can consider the LAS technique to perform total splenectomy in dogs without hemoabdomen and with spleens with modest-sized splenic masses up to 55.2 cm3/kg, with minimal rates of complications, morbidity, and mortality.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the perioperative outcome and complications in cats undergoing minimally invasive splenectomy.

ANIMALS

17 client-owned cats.

METHODS

Perioperative data were collected from cats undergoing minimally invasive splenectomy from September 2010 to June 2023. Data included history, signalment, preoperative examination and diagnostic testing results, operative technique and time, perioperative outcomes, complications, hospitalization duration, histopathological diagnosis, and outcome.

RESULTS

13 spayed females and 4 neutered males were included, with a median age of 144 months (48 to 196 months). Seven cats underwent total laparoscopic splenectomy (TLS), with 1 cat requiring conversion from TLS to laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy (LAS) due to splenomegaly and an additional cat requiring conversion from TLS to open splenectomy due to uncontrollable splenic capsular hemorrhage. Ten cats underwent LAS, with 1 cat requiring conversion to open splenectomy due to splenomegaly. Additional procedures were performed in 13 cats, with the most common being liver biopsy in 10 cats. Median operative times were 50 minutes (45 to 90 minutes) for TLS and 35 minutes (25 to 80 minutes) for LAS. An intraoperative complication occurred in 1 cat. All but 1 cat survived to discharge. Median follow-up time was 234 days (18 to 1,761 days), with 15 of 16 cats confirmed alive at 30 days and 9 of 16 cats alive at 180 days postoperatively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Minimally invasive splenectomy in this cohort of cats was associated with short operative times and a low perioperative complication rate. Veterinary surgeons may consider minimally invasive splenectomy as an efficient and feasible technique in the treatment of splenomegaly or modestly sized splenic masses for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for resection of unilateral adrenal masses and to document risk factors for conversion and peri- and postoperative morbidity.

ANIMALS

255 client-owned dogs.

METHODS

Dogs were included if LA was attempted for resection of a unilateral adrenal mass. Medical records were evaluated and relevant data were reported, including complications, conversion, perioperative death, and long-term outcomes. Signalment, clinicopathological data, and surgical experience were factors statistically evaluated for possible associations with capsular penetration during surgery, conversion, surgical time, duration of hospital stay, death prior to discharge, mass recurrence, and survival time.

RESULTS

155 dogs had left-sided tumors, and 100 had right-sided tumors. Conversion to an open approach was performed in 9.4% of cases. Capsular penetration (19.2%) and major hemorrhage (5.4%) were the most prevalent intraoperative complications. Of the dogs operated on, 94.9% were discharged from the hospital. Lesion side, portion of the gland affected, and surgeon experience influenced surgical time. Conversion rate increased with increasing body condition score and lesion size. Risk of death prior to discharge increased with increasing lesion size. Risk of conversion and death prior to discharge were lower when performed by more experienced surgeons. Capsular penetration during LA increased the risk of tumor recurrence.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

LA for resection of unilateral adrenal masses is associated with excellent outcomes in experienced centers. Surgeons with greater experience with LA have lower surgical times, conversion rates, and risk of death prior to discharge.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes in a cohort of dogs with histologically confirmed retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) and to identify potential variables of prognostic significance.

ANIMALS

46 client-owned dogs from 10 clinics with histopathologic diagnosis of a sarcoma originating from the retroperitoneal space.

METHODS

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to obtain information regarding clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. Recorded variables were analyzed to report descriptive data for all cases and overall survival time. Multivariate analysis was utilized to evaluate prognostic factors for overall survival.

RESULTS

Hemangiosarcoma was the most common histologic subtype diagnosed (76.1%). Cytoreductive and curative intent surgical excision of the RPS was attempted in 12 and 22 dogs, respectively; 12 dogs underwent no surgery or had an exploratory laparotomy with incisional biopsy only. Nineteen dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy, either injectable or metronomic, and 1 dog received adjuvant radiation therapy. Fourteen of the 34 (41.2%) surgically treated dogs developed evidence of local recurrence, but there was no difference in local recurrence when comparing dogs categorized as curative intent versus cytoreductive surgery. The median overall survival time was 238 days. On multivariable analysis, treatment approach was associated with survival with surgical excision (vs palliative treatment) and adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery being protective against death. A diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma was associated with a greater hazard of death.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study demonstrates a substantially greater survival time than previously published and suggests a survival benefit from surgical excision and adjuvant chemotherapy.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association