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Objective—

To determine the prevalence of hypergastrinemia in cats with naturally developing chronic renal failure (CRF) and the correlation between gastrin concentration in plasma and severity of CRF.

Design—

Cohort study.

Animals—

30 cats with naturally developing CRF and 12 clinically normal control cats.

Procedure—

Gastrin concentrations in plasma were determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from cats after food was withheld 8 hours. Concentrations were compared, using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA.

Results—

18 cats with CRF had high gastrin concentrations (median, 45 pg/ml; range, < 18 to > 1,333 pg/ml), compared with those for control cats (< 18 pg/ml). Prevalence of hypergastrinemia increased with severity of renal insufficiency. Three of 9 cats with mild CRF, 6 of 11 cats with moderate CRF, and 9 of 10 cats with severe CRF had high gastrin concentrations. Gastrin concentrations were significantly different between control cats and cats with CRF, regardless of disease severity.

Clinical Implications—

The potential role of high concentrations of gastrin on gastric hyperacidity, uremic gastritis, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and associated clinical signs of hypergastrinemia (eg, anorexia and vomiting) may justify use of histamine2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors to suppress gastric acid secretion in cats with CRF that have these clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:826-828)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine, among dogs with urolithiasis, whether dogs that had hyperadrenocorticism would be more likely to have calcium-containing uroliths than would dogs that did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocorticism.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Animals

20 dogs that had urolithiasis and hyperadrenocorticism and 42 breed-matched dogs that had urolithiasis but did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocortiosm.

Procedure

Signalment, urolith composition, results of bacterial culture of urine, and results of adrenal axis tests were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression model was created, including terms for age, sex, and hyperadrenocorticism. The outcome variable was presence or absence of calcium-containing uroliths.

Results

Among dogs with urolithiasis, those that had hyperadrenocorticism were 10 times as likely to have calcium-containing uroliths as were dogs that did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocorticism (odds ratio, 10.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 23.4) Neutered and sexually intact females were less likely to have calcium-containing uroliths than were neutered males (odds ratios, 0.041 [95% confidence interval, 0.0057 to 0.29] and 0.024 [95% confidence interval, 0.0012 to 0.5], respectively).

Clinical Implications

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of hyperadrenocorticism may decrease prevalence of calcium-containing uroliths in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:212:1889–1891)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) after IV administration of 3 doses of atropine to clinically normal, large-breed adult dogs.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs, weighing between 23 and 50 kg.

Procedure

Continuous ECG were recorded prior to and following IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg of atropine/kg of body weight. Heart rate and HRV within sympathetic and parasympathetic domains were determined, using customized software, and responses to treatments were compared. Each dog received all treatments with ≥ 2 days between treatments.

Results

HR increased and HRV within the parasympathetic domain decreased after all atropine treatments, compared with pretreatment values. Heart rate was significantly higher after administration of 0.06 mg of atropine/kg than after 0.02 mg/kg but was not different from HR after administration of 0.04 mg/kg. Five of 6 dogs given the 0.04 or 0.06 mg/kg dose attained HR > 135 beats/min, but only 1 of 6 dogs given the 0.02 mg/kg dose attained a HR > 135 beats/min. Heart rate variability within the parasympathetic domain decreased significantly from pretreatment values after all atropine treatments. Atropine doses of 0.04 and 0.06 mg/kg induced significantly lower HRV than did the 0.02 mg/kg dose, but HRV after the higher doses were not different from each other. HRV within the sympathetic domain after any treatment did not change from pretreatment values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

IV administration of 0.04 or 0.06 mg of atropine/kg increased HR and induced complete parasympathetic blockade in clinically normal, large-breed adult dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1000-1003)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

To evaluate the effect of diet on results obtained by use of 2 commercial test kits for detection of occult blood in feces, 5 dogs were fed 7 diets in randomized sequence. Dry and canned diets with various principal ingredients were evaluated. Each diet was offered twice over a 24-hour period, followed by a 36-hour nonfeeding period. Fecal specimens were collected twice daily, and tests for occult blood were performed within 12 hours. The dietary origin of fecal specimens was confirmed by use of colored markers fed with each diet, and was correlated with estimates of gastrointestinal tract transit time. A modified guaiac paper test and an o-tolidine tablet test were performed on each specimen.

Of 59 specimens, 4 were positive for occult blood, using the o-tolidine tablet test. Three positive results were associated with a mutton-based canned diet, and 1 positive result was associated with a canned beef-based diet. Of 59 specimens, 11 were positive for occult blood, using the modified guaiac paper test. Four positive results were associated with the mutton diet, and 3 positive results were associated with the beef diet. Of the remaining 5 diets, 4 caused 1 positive reaction.

Results were inconsistent with the null hypothesis that the distribution of positive occult blood test results is not affected by diet (P < 0.025), and indicate that diet can affect the specificity of peroxidase-based tests for detection of occult blood in canine feces. Diet modification prior to testing is recommended.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A Tigon fistula was surgically implanted into the third compartment of the stomach of 5 llamas to allow measurement of gastric pH. The llamas were allotted into 2 groups and given flunixin meglumine or cimetidine hydrochloride for 3 days. After 4 days without treatment, the drugs given to each group were reversed. Measurements of gastric pH were taken every 30 minutes for 6 hours, using an automated pH meter. The pH measurements after drug administration were compared with measurements obtained during a pretreatment control period. Gastric pH during pretreatment control periods had a mean of 1.43 ± 0.063 (mean ± se). The use of flunixin did not significantly decrease gastric pH, compared with pretreatment controls. Gastric pH was significantly higher within the first 30 minutes after administering cimetidine, compared with pretreatment controls, but this difference disappeared at all later times.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether histopathologic changes are detectable in grossly normal medial menisci from dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL).

Design—Case series.

Sample Population—40 medial menisci from dogs with rupture of the CCL and 20 medial menisci from control dogs without stifle joint disease.

Procedure—Data evaluated included age, duration of clinical signs, and whether rupture of the CCL was complete or incomplete. Three groups (n = 20/group) were also compared on the basis of 5 histologic criteria; group-1 menisci appeared grossly normal and were obtained from dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the CCL, group-2 menisci were grossly abnormal and were also obtained from dogs with naturally occurring CCL ruptures, and group-3 menisci were collected at postmortem from dogs without stifle joint disease that were of similar age and weight as dogs in groups 1 and 2.

Results—Group-2 menisci were significantly different from group-1 and -3 menisci in all histologic criteria. Group-1 menisci were significantly different from control menisci in only 1 of the 5 histologic criteria (cartilage differentiation). Dogs that were ≥ 3 years old had significantly more surface cellularity than did dogs that were < 3 years old. A significant difference was not detected between groups 1 and 2 with regard to completeness of rupture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Histologic changes in meniscal cartilage correlate with gross appearance of the cartilage at time of surgery for rupture of the CCL. On the basis of minimal histologic changes, routine removal of grossly normal menisci does not appear to be warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1281–1284)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of surgical technique and use of a rigid centralizing device on stem positioning and geometric reconstruction in the sagittal plane during total hip replacement in dogs.

Sample Population

Bilateral femurs from 8 adult mixed-breed canine cadavers.

Procedure

Femurs were prepared for femoral stem implantation, using 4 variations in technique. Proximal femoral reconstruction and femoral stem positioning were evaluated on radiographs.

Results

Implants evaluated in this study accurately reconstructed displacement of the femoral head of the intact canine femur in the sagittal plane. Centralization of the distal aspect of the stem was optimized by use of an undersized femoral stem. Ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter resulted in the smallest diaphysis-to-implant angle. Anteversion and retroversion of implants significantly decreased the distance between the distal tip of the implant and the adjacent cortex, compared with normoversion. The centralizing device significantly increased the minimum distance between the distal tip of the implant and adjacent cortex but did not improve the odds of actually centralizing the tip of the implant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Malpositioning of implants in the sagittal plane may be minimized through ostectomy at the lesser trochanter and use of an undersized implant positioned in normoversion. Use of a polymethylmethacrylate centralizing device will help eliminate contact between the implant tip and adjacent cortex. Implantation of an undersized femoral component, avoidance of substantial anteversion or retroversion, and use of a rigid centralizing device are recommended when using the prosthesis described-for total hip replacement of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1126–1135)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Animals—6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks.

Procedures—A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco 2 measured every 5 minutes plus Paco 2 and Pao 2 and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period.

Results—Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco 2 differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco 2 position × time interaction was significant and Petco 2 was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco 2. The Paco 2 in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao 2, suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O2 transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of body position on lung and air-sac volumes in anesthetized and spontaneously breathing red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Animals—6 adult red-tailed hawks (sex unknown).

Procedures—A crossover study design was used for quantitative estimation of lung and air-sac volumes in anesthetized hawks in 3 body positions: dorsal, right lateral, and sternal recumbency. Lung volume, lung density, and air-sac volume were calculated from helical computed tomographic (CT) images by use of software designed for volumetric analysis of CT data. Effects of body position were compared by use of repeated-measures ANOVA and a paired Student t test.

Results—Results for all pairs of body positions were significantly different from each other. Mean ± SD lung density was lowest when hawks were in sternal recumbency (–677 ± 28 CT units), followed by right lateral (–647 ± 23 CT units) and dorsal (–630 ± 19 CT units) recumbency. Mean lung volume was largest in sternal recumbency (28.6 ± 1.5 mL), followed by right lateral (27.6 ± 1.7 mL) and dorsal (27.0 ± 1.5 mL) recumbency. Mean partial air-sac volume was largest in sternal recumbency (27.0 ± 19.3 mL), followed by right lateral (21.9 ± 16.1 mL) and dorsal (19.3 ± 16.9 mL) recumbency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In anesthetized red-tailed hawks, positioning in sternal recumbency resulted in the greatest lung and air-sac volumes and lowest lung density, compared with positioning in right lateral and dorsal recumbency. Additional studies are necessary to determine the physiologic effects of body position on the avian respiratory system.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure the effect of induced myopia on field trial performance in dogs.

Animals—7 Labrador Retrievers and 1 Chesapeake Bay Retriever trained in field trial competition.

Procedures—Dogs were commanded to retrieve targets at 137.2 m (150 yards). Each dog participated in 3 trials while their eyes were fitted with 0- (plano), +1.50-, or +3.00-diopter (D) contact lenses, applied in random order. Retrieval times were measured objectively, and dog performances were evaluated subjectively by masked judges.

Results—Retrieval times were significantly faster with plano lenses than with +1.50- or +3.00-D lenses, but there were no significant differences in times between +1.50- and +3.00-D lenses. Masked judges assigned the best performance scores to dogs with plano lenses and the lowest scores to dogs fitted with +3.00-D lenses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Even mild myopic defocusing had a significant negative impact on both the subjective and objective assessments of dogs' performances. Dogs with demanding visual tasks or signs of visual deterioration should be evaluated retinoscopically to determine the refractive state because they may have ametropia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research