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Objective—To determine factors associated with development of postoperative ileus (POI) in horses undergoing surgery for colic.
Design—Prospective case-control study.
Animals—251 horses undergoing colic surgery, of which 47 developed POI.
Procedure—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic data, pre- and postoperative treatments, lesions, complications, costs, and outcome were recorded for all horses during hospitalization.
Results—Variables associated with increased odds of POI included small intestinal lesion, high PCV, and increased duration of anesthesia. There was modest evidence that pelvic flexure enterotomy and intraoperative administration of lidocaine may have reduced the odds of developing POI.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings during the preoperative and intraoperative periods can be used to identify horses at increased risk of POI. Reducing surgical and anesthetic duration should decrease the incidence of POI. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 1070–1078)
Objective—To identify factors significantly associated with an epidemic of fibrinous pericarditis during spring 2001 among horses in central Kentucky.
Animals—38 horses with fibrinous pericarditis and 30 control horses examined for other reasons.
Procedure—A questionnaire was developed to solicit information regarding a wide range of management practices and environmental exposures from farm owners or managers.
Results—The following factors were found in bivariate analyses to be significantly associated with an increased risk of pericarditis: being from a farm with mares and foals affected by mare reproductive loss syndrome, exposure to Eastern tent caterpillars in or around horse pastures, younger age, shorter duration of residence in Kentucky and at the farm of current residence, being fed hay grown outside Kentucky, a lack of access to pond water, access to orchard grass for grazing, and a lack of direct contact with cattle. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, only variables related to caterpillar exposure and age were significantly associated with fibrinous pericarditis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that fibrinous pericarditis in horses may be associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome. Exposure to Eastern tent caterpillars was the greatest risk factor for development of fibrinous pericarditis. The distribution of times of diagnosis of fibrinous pericarditis was consistent with a point-source epidemic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:832–838)
Objective—To identify factors associated with abortions of mares during late gestation attributed to mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS).
Animals—282 broodmares from 62 farms in central Kentucky, including 137 mares that had late-term abortions (LTAs) associated with MRLS, 98 mares from the same farms that did not abort, and 48 mares that aborted from causes other than MRLS.
Procedure—Farm managers were interviewed to obtain data on a wide range of management practices and environmental exposures for the mares. Data for case and control horses were compared to identify risk factors for a mare having a MRLS-associated LTA (MRLS-LTA).
Results—Several factors increased the risk of mares having MRLS-LTAs, including increased amount of time at pasture, less time in a stall, feeding concentrate on the ground, higher proportion of diet derived from grazing pasture, being fed in pasture exclusively during the 4-week period prior to abortion, access to pasture after midnight during the 4-week period prior to abortion, and drinking from a water trough or not having access to water buckets or automatic waterers.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis indicates that exposure to pasture predisposed mares to having MRLS-LTAs and stillborn foals. Methods for limiting exposure to pasture (keeping mares in stalls longer) during environmental conditions similar to those seen in 2001 should reduce the risk of mares having MRLS-LTAs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:199–209)
Objective—To determine whether isolation and virulence of Rhodococcus equi from soil and infected foals are associated with clinical disease.
Design—Cross-sectional and case-control study.
Sample Population—R equi isolates from 50 foals with pneumonia and soil samples from 33 farms with and 33 farms without a history of R equi infection (affected and control, respectively).
Procedure—R equi was selectively isolated from soil samples. Soil and clinical isolates were evaluated for virulence-associated protein antigen plasmids (VapAP) and resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics penicillin G and cephalothin. Microbiologic cultures and VapA-P assays were performed at 2 independent laboratories.
Results—VapA-P was detected in 49 of 50 (98%) clinical isolates; there was complete agreement between laboratories. Rhodococcus equi was isolated from soil on 28 of 33 (84.8%) affected farms and 24 of 33 (72.7%) control farms, but there was poor agreement between laboratories. Virulence-associated protein antigen plasmids were detected on 14 of 66 (21.2%) farms by either laboratory, but results agreed for only 1 of the 14 VapA-P-positive farms. We did not detect significant associations between disease status and isolation of R equi from soil, detection of VapA-P in soil isolates, or resistance of soil isolates to β-lactam antibiotics. No association between β-lactam antibiotic resistance and presence of VapA-P was detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of soil microbiologic culture and VapA-P assay results, it is not possible to determine whether foals on a given farm are at increased risk of developing disease caused by R equi. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:220–225)
Objective—To determine whether administration of killed West Nile virus vaccine was associated with pregnancy loss among broodmares.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Procedure—Records of pregnant mares with known vaccination history from 4 farms were reviewed. Information obtained from 595 mares included mare's identification; farm; age; breed; reproductive status; last breeding date; date last known pregnant; vaccination date; age of conceptus at vaccination; vaccination during the early embryonic, early fetal, and late fetal periods; and whether an early embryonic death (EED), early fetal loss (EFL), or late fetal loss (LFL) occurred. The relationships between the dichotomous outcomes of loss (eg, EED, EFL, LFL) and independent categoric variables (eg, vaccination during the early embryonic, early fetal, or late fetal periods) were examined.
Results—Vaccination of pregnant mares during any period of gestation was not associated with increased incidence of pregnancy loss.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many mares are already pregnant at the onset of mosquito season, when mares are more likely to be vaccinated than at other times. Our findings provide evidence that vaccine administration will not compromise pregnancy in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1894–1897)
Objective—To compare isolates of Rhodococcus equi on the basis of geographic source and virulence status by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Sample Population—290 isolates of R equi(218 virulent isolates from foals and 72 avirulent isolates from feces, soil, and respiratory tract samples) obtained between 1985 and 2000 from horses and horse farms from 4 countries.
Procedure—DNA from isolates was digested with the restriction enzyme AseI and tested by use of PFGE. Products were analyzed for similarities in banding patterns by use of dendrograms. A similarity matrix was constructed for isolates, and the matrix was tested for nonrandom distributions of similarity values with respect to groupings of interest.
Results—There was little grouping of isolates on the basis of country, virulence status, or region within Texas. Isolates of R equi were generally < 80% similar, as determined by use of PFGE. Isolates from the same farm generally were rarely of the same strain.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Considerable chromosomal variability exists among isolates of R equi obtained from the same farm, sites within Texas, or among countries from various continents. Only rarely will it be possible to link infections to a given site or region on the basis of analysis of isolates by use of PFGE of chromosomal DNA. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:153–161)
Objective—To determine whether airborne concentrations of virulent Rhodococcus equi at 2 horse breeding farms varied on the basis of location, time of day, and month.
Sample Population—2 farms in central Kentucky with recurrent R equi-induced pneumonia in foals.
Procedures—From February through July 2008, air samples were collected hourly for a 24-hour period each month from stalls and paddocks used to house mares and their foals. Concentrations of airborne virulent R equi were determined via a modified colony immunoblot technique. Differences were compared by use of zero-inflated negative binomial methods to determine effects of location, time, and month.
Results—Whether mares and foals were housed predominantly in stalls or paddocks significantly affected results for location of sample collection (stall vs paddock) by increasing airborne concentrations of virulent R equi at the site where horses were predominantly housed. Airborne concentrations of virulent R equi were significantly higher from 6:00 pm through 11:59 pm than for the period from midnight through 5:59 am. Airborne concentrations of virulent R equi did not differ significantly between farms or among months.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Airborne concentrations of virulent R equi were significantly increased when horses were predominantly housed at the site for collection of air samples (ie, higher in stalls when horses were predominantly housed in stalls and higher in paddocks when horses were predominantly housed in paddocks). Concentrations of virulent R equi among air samples collected between the hours of 6:00 am and midnight appeared similar.
Objective—To determine whether soil concentrations of total or virulent Rhodococcus equi differed among breeding farms with and without foals with pneumonia caused by R equi.
Sample Population—37 farms in central Kentucky.
Procedures—During January, March, and July 2006, the total concentration of R equi and concentration of virulent R equi were determined by use of quantitative bacteriologic culture and a colony immunoblot technique, respectively, in soil specimens obtained from farms. Differences in concentrations and proportion of virulent isolates within and among time points were compared among farms.
Results—Soil concentrations of total or virulent R equi did not vary among farms at any time point. Virulent R equi were identified in soil samples from all farms. Greater density of mares and foals was significantly associated with farms having foals with pneumonia attributable to R equi. Among farms with affected foals, there was a significant association of increased incidence of pneumonia attributable to R equi with an increase in the proportion of virulent bacteria between samples collected in March and July.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that virulent R equi were commonly recovered from soil of horse breeding farms in central Kentucky, regardless of the status of foals with pneumonia attributable to R equi on each farm. The incidence of foals with pneumonia attributable to R equi can be expected to be higher at farms with a greater density of mares and foals.
Objective—To determine whether the concentration of airborne virulent Rhodococcus equi varied by location (stall vs paddock) and month on horse farms.
Sample—Air samples from stalls and paddocks used to house mares and foals on 30 horse breeding farms in central Kentucky.
Procedures—Air samples from 1 stall and 1 paddock were obtained monthly from each farm from January through June 2009. Concentrations of airborne virulent R equi were determined via a modified colony immunoblot assay. Random-effects logistic regression was used to determine the association of the presence of airborne virulent R equi with location from which air samples were obtained and month during which samples were collected.
Results—Of 180 air samples, virulent R equi was identified in 49 (27%) and 13 (7%) obtained from stalls and paddocks, respectively. The OR of detecting virulent R equi in air samples from stalls versus paddocks was 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 13.1). Of 60 air samples, virulent R equi was identified in 25 (42%), 18 (30%), and 6 (10%) obtained from stalls during January and February, March and April, and May and June, respectively. The OR of detecting virulent R equi from stall air samples collected during May and June versus January and February was 0.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.08 to 0.63).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Foals were more likely to be exposed to airborne virulent R equi when housed in stalls versus paddocks and earlier (January and February) versus later (May and June) during the foaling season.
Objective—To compare signalment of horses with cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation (CVM) with that of control horses and to describe results of clinical examination, diagnostic imaging and necropsy findings, and reported outcome in horses with CVM.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—270 horses with CVM and 608 control horses admitted to 6 veterinary hospitals from 1992 through 2007.
Procedures—Medical records of participating hospitals were reviewed to identify horses with CVM (ie, case horses) and contemporaneous control (non-CVM-affected) horses that were admitted for treatment. Signalment was compared between case horses and control horses. Results of clinical examination, laboratory and diagnostic imaging findings, necropsy results, and outcome were assessed for horses with CVM.
Results—Case horses were younger (median age, 2 years) than were control horses (median age, 7 years). Thoroughbreds, warmbloods, and Tennessee Walking Horses were overrepresented in the CVM group. Gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently detected in horses with CVM. Vertebral canal stenosis and articular process osteophytosis were commonly observed at necropsy; agreement between the results of radiographic or myelographic analysis and detection of lesions at necropsy was 65% to 71% and 67% to 78%, respectively. Of 263 horses with CVM for which outcome was recorded, 1 died and 172 (65.4%) were euthanatized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Odds of a diagnosis of CVM were greater in young horses and horses of specific breeds. Detection of gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently reported in association with CVM. Accurate diagnosis of lesions associated with CVM by use of radiography and myelography can be challenging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:812-822)