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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II expression in equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) changes with exposure to a proinflammatory environment reflective of an inflamed joint.

SAMPLE Cryopreserved bone marrow-derived MSCs from 12 horses and cartilage and synovium samples from 1 horse euthanized for reasons other than lameness.

PROCEDURES In part 1 of a 3-part study, the suitability of a quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for measurement of MHC class II expression in MSCs following stimulation with interferon (IFN)-γ was assessed. In part 2, synoviocyte-cartilage cocultures were or were not stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β (10 ng/mL) to generate conditioned media that did and did not (control) mimic an inflamed joint environment. In part 3, a qRT-PCR assay was used to measure MSC MHC class II expression after 96 hours of incubation with 1 of 6 treatments (control-conditioned medium, IL-1β-conditioned medium, and MSC medium alone [untreated control] or with IL-1β [10 ng/mL], tumor necrosis factor-α [10 ng/mL], or IFN-γ [100 ng/mL]).

RESULTS The qRT-PCR assay accurately measured MHC class II expression. Compared with MHC class II expression for MSCs exposed to the untreated control medium, that for MSCs exposed to IL-1β was decreased, whereas that for MSCs exposed to IFN-γ was increased. Neither the control-conditioned nor tumor necrosis factor-α medium altered MHC class II expression.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that MSC exposure to proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β decreased MHC class II expression and antigenicity. Treatment of inflamed joints with allogeneic MSCs might not be contraindicated, but further investigation is warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, compared with interleukin (IL)-1α, on cartilage matrix molecule gene expression in a coculture system of equine cartilage explants and synoviocytes.

Sample Population—Articular cartilage and synovium specimens harvested from femoropatellar joints of 4 horses, aged 3 to 5 years.

Procedures—Synoviocytes were isolated and cocultured with cartilage explants. Cultures were treated with human recombinant MMP-13 (1, 25, or 100 ng/mL) or IL-1α (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ng/mL) for 96 hours, with medium exchange at 48 hours. Cartilage extracts and media were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and results were adjusted to cartilage DNA content. Quantitative PCR was performed on mRNA from cartilage (MMP-3, MMP-13, aggrecan, and collagen type IIB [COL2A1]) and synoviocytes (MMP-3 and MMP-13), and results were adjusted to 18S ribosomal subunit mRNA expression. Treatments were performed in triplicate, and the experiment was repeated 4 times.

Results—Cultures treated with MMP-13 or IL-1α had increased media GAG concentration at 48 and 96 hours. Aggrecan and COL2A1 mRNA expression were increased by application of MMP-13 or IL-1α. Gene expression of the catabolic mediator, MMP-3, in cartilage and synoviocytes was increased in cultures treated with MMP-13 or IL-1α. Expression of MMP-13 mRNA in cartilage was increased by IL-1α, but decreased in synoviocytes by MMP-13 treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support the use of recombinant MMP-13 in a coculture system of synoviocytes and cartilage explants for the study of osteoarthritis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the concentration of doxycycline compounded from doxycycline hyclate tablets into liquid formulations for oral administration in veterinary species and stored for 28 days.

Design—Evaluation study.

Sample—Doxycycline hyclate tablets (100 mg) crushed and mixed with a 50:50 mixture of syrup and suspension vehicles for oral administration to produce 3 batches each of 2 doxycycline formulations: 33.3 and 166.7 mg/mL.

Procedures—Formulations were stored, protected from light, at room temperature (22° to 26°C [71.6° to 78.8°F]) and at a controlled cold temperature (refrigerated 2° to 8°C [35.6° to 46.4°F]). Doxycycline was extracted from the formulations, and concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography on days 0 (date of preparation), 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Concentrations were compared with those of a US Pharmacopeial Convention reference standard. Formulation quality at each point was also assessed through color change, formulation consistency, and suspension uniformity.

Results—On days 0, 1, 4, and 7, the concentration of each formulation was within 90% to 110% of the reference standard (range, 93% to 109%), which was deemed acceptable. However, doxycycline concentrations had decreased dramatically by day 14 and remained low for the duration of the study period. Doxycycline concentrations on days 14, 21, and 28 were all < 20% (range, 14% to 18%) of the reference standard, and the quality of the formulations decreased as well. No effect of storage temperatures on doxycycline concentration was identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The concentration of doxycycline, compounded from commercial tablets in the vehicles evaluated to yield doses of 33.3 and 166.7 mg/mL, cannot be assured beyond 7 days.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare chondrocyte proliferation and metabolism in three-dimensional fibrin cultures formed from polymerized autogenous fibrinogen with that of commercially manufactured fractionated fibrinogen.

Animals

Fibrinogen and chondrocytes for in vitro experimentation derived from 2 horses, ages 12 and 14 months, donated for reasons unrelated to skeletal or hematologic abnormalities.

Procedure

Fibrinogen was isolated from whole blood, using plasma cryoprecipitation and centrifugation, and fractionated fibrinogen was purchased. Each was mixed with 10 × 106 chondrocytes/0.5 ml of fibrinogen, and was polymerized by addition of 0.5 ml of calcium-activated thrombin. Thirty 1-ml fibrin-chondrocyte disks were formed from each fibrinogen source and cultured for 0 (n = 6), 7 (n = 12), or 14 (n = 12) days. Chondrocyte metabolism and cell proliferation in each fibrin type were objectively assessed by assays for total proteoglycan content, [35S]proteoglycan accumulation, proteoglycan monomer size, and total DNA. Cell morphology and cartilage-specific cell function was evaluated by routine histologic, alcian blue histochemical, type-II collagen immunohistochemical, and type-II collagen in situ hybridization methods.

Results

Histologic examination indicated better retention of chondrocyte morphology in autogenous composites. Autogenous fibrinogen also stimulated greater chondrocyte proliferation (DNA content increased 1.4-fold on day 14) and supported higher proteoglycan accumulation (increased 1.4-fold on day 14), compared with commercial, fractionated fibrinogen. Abundant intracellular type-II procollagen mRNA was detected in autogenous fibrin cultures by in situ hybridization, and translation was confirmed by extensive pericellular type-II collagen accumulation.

Conclusions

Autogenous fibrinogen has an inherent capacity to maintain chondrocyte phenotypic metabolism that is reduced or absent in commercially prepared fibrinogen. Enhanced, differentiated cell function may be useful for in vivo applications, but represents an added variable that may confound in vitro experiments, and should be considered when designing studies of chondrocyte function. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:514–520)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To isolate mesenchymal stem cells from adult horses and determine specific monolayer culture conditions required to enhance biochemically and phenotypically defined chondrocytic differentiation.

Animals

2 adult horse bone marrow donors without skeletal or hematologic abnormalities.

Procedure

Bone marrow was aspirated from the sternebra, and mesenchymal stem cells were isolated by centrifugation and cultured in monolayers. Subcultures were established in 24-well plates on day 13. Culture medium was harvested every 2 days, and culture of 12 of the 24 wells was terminated on day 6 and of the remaining wells on day 12. Medium proteoglycan content was determined for all samples, and proteoglycan monomeric size was determined for pooled samples from days 2-6 and 8-12. Total nucleated cell numbers were determined at culture termination on days 6 and 12. Histologic, histochemical, and collagen immunohistochemical analyses of multiwell chamber slides harvested on day 6 or 12 were performed.

Results

Mesenchymal cells were an abundant cellular constituent of bone marrow aspirates, and separation of hematopoietic elements was achieved by centrifugation and delayed medium exchange. The remaining mesenchymal stem cells progressed from large, spindyloid, fibroblastic-appearing cells to a rounder shaped cell which formed colony plaques; isolated cells remained more spindyloid. Mesenchymal cell transformation toward a chondrocytic phenotype was verified by a shift in expression from collagen type I to type II, and an increase in quantity and molecular size of proteoglycans synthesized over time.

Conclusions

Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from adult horses have the capacity to undergo chondrogenic differentiation in monolayer cultures and may provide a locally recruitable or transplantable autogenous cell source for articular cartilage repair. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1182-1187).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the synthesis of DNA, collagen, and proteoglycans (PG) by equine chondrocytes.

Sample Population

Articular cartilage obtained from multiple joints of a 4-month-old foal.

Procedure

Chondrocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, cultured in monolayer, trypsinized, and implanted at a cellular density of 10 × 106 chondrocytes/ml in a three-dimensional fibrin matrix. Chondrocytes in culture were supplemented with TGF-β1 at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, or 10 ng/ml in serum-free medium or medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Total PG accumulation, [35S]-labeled PG synthesis, PG monomer hydrodynamic size, type II collagen production, total DNA content, and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA were determined at 7 and 14 days of culture.

Results

Chondrocytes maintained a rounded phenotype, dedifferentiating slightly to a more fibroblastic appearance only in medium containing FBS and 10 ng of TGF-β1/ml. Type II collagen immunoreaction on day 14 was decreased in the pericellular matrix in cultures containing FBS and 1, 5, and 10 ng of TGF-β1/ml, and in all serum-free culture conditions compared to FBS and 0 ng of TGF-β1/ml. Total proteoglycan accumulation and [35S]-labeled proteoglycan synthesis in cultures on days 7 and 14 were increased by the addition of exogenous TGF-β1 in serum-free conditions and decreased by TGF-β1 in FBS-supplemented conditions. Calculation of the partition coefficients for PG indicated that there was synthesis of low molecular weight PG in serum-free conditions and larger sized proteoglycans in FBS-supplemented conditions. Proteoglycan molecular size was unchanged by the addition of TGF-β1. Total DNA content of chondrocytes increased with the addition of TGF-β1 in FBS-supplemented conditions and decreased in serum-free conditions.

Conclusions

In a solid three-dimensional fibrin matrix, the effects of TGF-β1 on chondrocyte biological activity depend on the culture duration and on the presence of FBS in the medium. Stimulatory effects of TGF-β1 were most pronounced in serum-free culture conditions with high concentration of TGF-β1 (5 and 10 ng/ml) on day 7 and with low concentration of TGF-β1 (1 ng/ml) on day 14.

Clinical Relevance

TGF-β1 may not be a suitable growth factor for enhancement of equine articular grafting in sites exposed to serum. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:66–70)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether administering a tart cherry juice blend (TCJB) prior to exercise would reduce skeletal and cardiac muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory and oxidative stress response to exercise in horses.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly allocated into 2 groups in a crossover study with a 2-week washout period and orally administered either TCJB or a placebo solution (1.42 L, twice daily) in a double-masked protocol for 2 weeks prior to a stepwise incremental exercise protocol. Horses were tested for serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an indicator of oxidative stress), and serum amyloid A (SAA; an indicator of inflammation). To ensure that treatment would not result in positive results of an equine drug-screening protocol, serum samples obtained from each horse prior to and after 2 weeks of administration of TCJB or the placebo solution were tested.

Results—All horses had negative results of drug screening at both sample times. The exercise protocol resulted in a significant increase in TBARS concentration, SAA concentration, and serum AST activity in all horses. Administration of TCJB or placebo solution was not associated with an effect on malondialdehyde or SAA concentrations. However, administration of TCJB was associated with less serum activity of AST, compared with administration of placebo solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of TCJB may diminish muscle damage induced by exercise.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on proteoglycan metabolism in equine cartilage explants when cultured in the presence of synoviocytes.

Sample Population—Samples of cartilage and synovium collected from the femoropatellar joints of three 2- to 3-year-old horses.

Procedures—3 experimental groups were established: cartilage explants only, synoviocytes only, and cartilage explants-synoviocytes in coculture. In each group, samples were cultured with or without IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 96 hours. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of cartilage and medium samples was measured by use of a spectrophotometric assay; RNA was isolated from synoviocytes and cartilage and analyzed for expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3 and -13 (cartilage and synoviocytes), aggrecan (cartilage), collagen type IIB (cartilage), and 18S as a control (cartilage and synoviocytes) by use of quantitative PCR assays. Cartilage matrix metachromasia was assessed histochemically.

Results—IL-1β–induced GAG loss from cartilage was significantly less in cocultures than in cartilage-only cultures. Cartilage aggrecan gene expression was also significantly less downregulated and synoviocyte MMP-3 expression was less upregulated by IL-1β in cocultures, compared with cartilage- and synoviocyteonly cultures. Histochemical findings supported the molecular and biochemical results and revealed maintenance of matrix metachromasia in cocultured cartilage treated with IL-1β.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synoviocytes secrete 1 or more mediators that preferentially protect matrix GAG metabolism from the degradative effects of IL-1β. Further studies involving proteomic and microarray approaches in similar coculture systems may elucidate novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine morphological characteristics of subchondral bone cysts (SBCs) in medial femoral condyles (MFCs) of adult horses with orthopedic disease.

SAMPLE CT scans of 7 MFCs with SBCs from 6 adult horses.

PROCEDURES CT was used to determine the volume, surface area, and centers of the articular cyst opening and SBC in each MFC. Cysts were ordered from smallest to largest on the basis of volume. Osseous pathological characteristics of the MFC were assessed in the frontal plane. Three-dimensional distance of displacement between the center of the articular cyst opening and center of the cyst was determined for each SBC. Cyst surface area-to-volume ratio was evaluated and compared with that of a true sphere.

RESULTS All SBCs had a defect in the subchondral bone plate at the cranial 15% to 20% of the MFC. Cyst center was located in a caudal, proximal, and abaxial direction with respect to the center of the articular cyst opening for each horse. Small- and intermediate-volume SBCs were irregular and multilobulated, whereas large-volume SBCs were smooth and discrete with a surface area-to-volume ratio approaching that of a sphere.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Consistency in morphological characteristics suggested a common etiopathogenesis for SBCs in MFCs of adult horses. Cyst enlargement may have been attributable to a biomechanical predisposition to decrease the surface area-to-volume ratio, resulting in a spherical cyst.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research