Objective—To determine the incidence of vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 30 days of vaccination in cats and characterize risk factors for their occurrence.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—496,189 cats vaccinated at 329 hospitals.
Procedures—Electronic records were searched for VAAEs that occurred after vaccine administration classified by practitioners as nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, shock, or anaphylaxis. Clinical signs and treatments were reviewed. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE occurrence was estimated via multivariate logistic regression.
Results—2,560 VAAEs were associated with administration of 1,258,712 doses of vaccine to 496,189 cats (51.6 VAAEs/10,000 cats vaccinated). The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccines administered per office visit increased. Risk was greatest for cats approximately 1 year old; overall risk was greater for neutered versus sexually intact cats. Lethargy with or without fever was the most commonly diagnosed VAAE. No localized reactions recorded in the 30-day period were subsequently diagnosed as neoplasia when followed for 1 to 2 years.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall VAAE rates were low, young adult neutered cats that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at the greatest risk of a VAAE within 30 days after vaccination. Veterinarians should incorporate these findings into risk communications and limit the number of vaccinations administered concurrently to cats.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ultrasonographically measured optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and acute increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) as measured by an epidural intracranial pressure monitoring system (EICPMS) in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 6 young healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES An EICPMS connected to a pressure monitor was used to generate a continuous pressure waveform in each anesthetized dog. A 22-gauge IV catheter was inserted into the brain parenchyma through the contralateral parietal bone, and 0.5 to 2.0 mL of anticoagulated autologous blood was injected at predetermined intervals. At baseline (immediately after EICPMS placement) and following each injection, the ICP as indicated by EICPMS was recorded, and 3 ultrasonographic images of the optic nerve sheath of each eye were obtained. The ONSD was measured at maximum diameter and at 5 mm caudal to the optic disk.
RESULTS In linear models, the maximum ONSD was positively associated with increasing ICP. Specifically, the rate of maximum ONSD increase was greater for pressures ≤ 20 mm Hg above baseline (0.0534 mm/1 mm Hg ICP increase) than for pressures > 40 mm Hg above baseline (0.0087 mm/1 mm Hg ICP increase). The relationship of ICP to maximum ONSD was slightly nonlinear and best explained by comparison of fractional polynomial regression models.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ICP was positively and nonlinearly associated with increasing maximum ONSD, especially when ICP was ≤ 20 mm Hg above baseline, supporting the conclusion that ultrasonographic measurement of maximum ONSD may provide a noninvasive monitoring tool for evaluation of ICP in dogs. Further research is needed to assess the utility of these measurements in clinical patients.
Objective—To estimate prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections in pet cats in the United States and identify risk factors for parasitism.
Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.
Study Population—356,086 cats examined at 359 private veterinary hospitals during 2003.
Procedure—Electronic medical records were searched to identify cats for which fecal flotation tests had been performed and to determine proportions of test results positive for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. Potential risk factors for roundworm and hookworm infection were identified by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results—A total of 80,278 tests were performed on fecal samples from 66,819 cats. Calculated prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infection were 2.92%, 0.63%, and 0.031%, respectively. Age, reproductive status, breed, and season were significant risk factors for roundworm infection, with cats < 4 years old; sexually intact cats; mixed-breed cats; and cats examined during the summer, fall, or winter more likely to be infected. Age, reproductive status, and season were significant risk factors for hookworm infection, with cats < 1 year old, sexually intact cats, and cats examined during the summer more likely to be infected. Regional differences in prevalences of roundworm and hookworm infection were found.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that prevalences of nematode infections among pet cats in the United States may be lower than previously suspected on the basis of prevalences reported among cats in humane shelters and those reported in more geographically focused studies.
OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas.
ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas.
PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mm). Five images (2 molar, 2 premolar, and mandibular incisor teeth) were selected from each protocol for evaluation by 3 veterinary radiologists. For each image, tooth root visibility and sharpness and image noise artifact were subjectively evaluated on a 3-point scoring system.
RESULTS Slice thickness significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness but did not affect image noise artifact. Acquisition mode significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness as well as image noise artifact. Tooth root visibility and sharpness did not differ significantly between the helical and sequential images when the slice thickness was 1.25 mm. Image noise artifact was greater for helical images than sequential images but did not differ by slice thickness within either acquisition mode.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for a 64-slice CT scanner, the optimal protocol for the acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas was a sequential scan with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm.
OBJECTIVE To compare time to achieve vascular access (TTVA) between an ultrasound-guided technique (UST) and landmark-based technique (LMT) for central venous catheter (CVC) placement in healthy anesthetized dogs.
ANIMALS 39 purpose-bred hounds.
PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs that were hemodynamically stable following completion of a terminal surgical exercise were enrolled in the study during 2 phases, with a 45-day intermission between phases. For each dog, a UST and LMT were used for CVC placement via each external jugular vein by 2 operators (criticalist and resident). The TTVA and number of venipuncture attempts and catheter redirections were recorded for each catheterization. Placement of the CVC was confirmed by contrast fluoroscopy. After euthanasia, a gross dissection was performed during which a hematoma score was assigned to the catheter insertion site. For each phase, nonlinear least squares estimation was used for learning curve analysis of the UST.
RESULTS Median TTVA, number of venipuncture attempts and catheter redirections, and hematoma score did not differ significantly between the 2 operators for either technique. Median TTVA for the UST (45 seconds) was significantly longer than that for the LMT (7 seconds). Learning curve analysis indicated that 8 and 7 UST catheterizations were required to achieve performance stability in phases 1 and 2, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the UST was comparable to the LMT for CVC placement in healthy dogs. The extra time required to perform the UST was not clinically relevant. Additional studies evaluating the UST for CVC placement in clinically ill dogs are warranted.
Objective—To determine the extent to which a hydroxyapatite coating promotes pin stability in the third metacarpal bone during transfixation casting in horses.
Animals—14 adult horses.
Procedures—7 horses each were assigned to either an uncoated or hydroxyapatite-coated pin group. Three transcortical pins were placed in the third metacarpal bone of each horse and incorporated into a cast for 8 weeks. Insertion and extraction torque were measured, and torque reduction was calculated. Radiography was performed at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Lameness evaluation was performed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Bacteriologic culture of pins and pin holes was performed at pin removal.
Results—All horses used casts without major complication throughout the study. Insertion torque was higher in uncoated pins. There was no effect of group on extraction torque. Hydroxyapatite-coated pins had lower torque reduction. Five of 15 hydroxyapatite-coated pins maintained or increased stability, whereas all uncoated pins loosened. Pin hole radiolucency, lameness grades, and positive bacteriologic culture rates were not different between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydroxyapatite coating increased pin stability within the third metacarpal bone of horses during 8 weeks of transfixation casting but did not improve pin performance on clinical assessments. Clinical use of hydroxyapatite-coated transfixation pins may result in greater pin stability; however, further research is necessary to improve the consistency of pin osteointegration and elucidate whether clinical benefits will ultimately result from this approach in horses.
To evaluate the effect of a double Krackow suture pattern (DK), with and without epitendinous suture augmentation (ES), in a canine gastrocnemius tendon (GT) model.
Paired GTs from 12 adult dog cadavers and 4 control GT.
GTs were assigned to 2 groups (n = 12/group). Transverse tenotomy was performed and repaired with a DK or DK + ES. Yield, peak, and failure force, stiffness, occurrence of 1-and 3-mm gapping, and failure mode were examined.
Yield, peak, and failure loads were greater for DK + ES. Yield force was 48% greater for DK + ES (mean ± SD, 149.56 ± 53.26 N) versus DK (101.27 ± 37.17 N; P = 0.017). Peak force was 45% greater for DK + ES P < 0.001). Failure force was 47% greater for DK + ES (193.752 ± 31.43 N) versus DK (131.54 ± 22.28 N; P < 0.001). Construct stiffness was 36% greater for DK + ES (P = 0.04). All 12 DK and 10 of 12 DK + ES repairs produced a 1-mm gap, with all DK and 4 DK + ES repairs producing a 3-mm gap (P < 0.001). Loads required to create a 3-mm gap were significantly greater for DK + ES (P < 0.013). Suture breakage occurred in all DK repairs, which differed from DK + ES, where suture breakage (7/12) and tissue failure (5/12; P = 0.037) predominated.
Augmentation of a primary DK repair with an ES significantly improved construct strength in canine GT constructs while increasing loads required to cause 1- and 3-mm gap formation, respectively. ES augmentation is a simple technique modification that can be used to significantly increase construct strength, compared with DK alone.
Objective—To determine incidence rates and potential
risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events
(VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary
Procedure—Electronic records from January 1, 2002,
through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible
VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic
reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3
days of vaccine administration. Information included
age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific
clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random
sample of 400 affected dogs. The association
between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated
by use of multivariate logistic regression.
Results—4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs
vaccinated) were associated with administration of
3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The
VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight
increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered
versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater
for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9
months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased
as the number of vaccine doses administered per
office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly
increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in
dogs ≤ 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Young adult
small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines
per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE
within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors
should be considered in risk assessment and risk
communication with clients regarding vaccination.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1102–1108)