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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate a percutaneous, continuous gastric decompression technique for dogs involving a temporary T-fastener gastropexy and self-retaining decompression catheter.

ANIMALS 6 healthy male large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency with slight left-lateral obliquity. The gastric lumen was insufflated endoscopically until tympany was evident. Three T-fasteners were placed percutaneously into the gastric lumen via the right lateral aspect of the abdomen, caudal to the 13th rib and lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle. Through the center of the T-fasteners, a 5F locking pigtail catheter was inserted into the gastric lumen and attached to a device measuring gas outflow and intragastric pressure. The stomach was insufflated to 23 mm Hg, air was allowed to passively drain from the catheter until intraluminal pressure reached 5 mm Hg for 3 cycles, and the catheter was removed. Dogs were hospitalized and monitored for 72 hours.

RESULTS Mean ± SD catheter placement time was 3.3 ± 0.5 minutes. Mean intervals from catheter placement to a ≥ 50% decrease in intragastric pressure and to ≤ 6 mm Hg were 2.1 ± 1.3 minutes and 8.4 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively. After catheter removal, no gas or fluid leakage at the catheter site was visible laparoscopically or endoscopically. All dogs were clinically normal 72 hours after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The described technique was performed rapidly and provided continuous gastric decompression with no evidence of postoperative leakage in healthy dogs. Investigation is warranted to evaluate its effectiveness in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors associated with death and development of perioperative complications in dogs undergoing surgery for treatment of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—166 dogs.

Procedures—Records of dogs with confirmed GDV that underwent surgery were reviewed. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with development of complications (ie, hypotension, arrhythmias, gastric necrosis necessitating gastrectomy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peritonitis, sepsis, postoperative dilatation, postoperative vomiting, and incisional problems) and with short-term outcome (ie, died vs survived to the time of suture removal).

Results—Short-term mortality rate was 16.2% (27/166). Risk factors significantly associated with death prior to suture removal were clinical signs for > 6 hours prior to examination, combined splenectomy and partial gastrectomy, hypotension at any time during hospitalization, peritonitis, sepsis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Partial gastrectomy was not a significant risk factor for death but was for peritonitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, sepsis, and arrhythmias. Age, gastrectomy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation were risk factors for development of hypotension. Use of a synthetic colloid or hypertonic saline solution was associated with a significantly decreased risk of hypotension.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the prognosis for dogs undergoing surgery because of GDV is good but that certain factors are associated with an increased risk that dogs will develop perioperative complications or die.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine factors associated with long-term survival after biliary surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—34 dogs that underwent biliary surgery.

Procedures—Data extracted from medical records included sex, breed, body weight, age at surgery, history and clinical examination findings, preoperative and postoperative CBC, serum biochemical panel and coagulation profiles results, abdominal ultrasonographic findings, results of bacteriologic culture and histologic examination, surgical findings, postoperative complications, and survival time. Follow-up information was obtained from medical records or phone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Primary biliary findings included gallbladder mucocele (n = 20 dogs), inflammatory diseases (4), trauma (3), and neoplasia (1). Secondary biliary diseases included pancreatitis (n = 4), pancreatic neoplasia (1), and duodenal perforation (1). One- and 2-year survival rates were both 66%. Increasing age; γ-glutamyltransferase activity; preanesthetic heart rate; BUN, phosphorus, and bilirubin concentrations; and the use of biliary diversion procedures were risk factors for death, although pancreatitis was not. However, poor long-term survival was associated with pancreatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-term prognosis was guarded after biliary surgery in dogs. However, dogs that survived the early postoperative period had good long-term prognosis. Dogs with pancreatitis had poor prognosis. Overall, the prognosis was worse for dogs that underwent a biliary diversion, compared with dogs that did not.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes in dogs undergoing extirpation of masses from the cranial mediastinum via video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and establish preliminary guidelines for case selection when considering VATS for thymectomy in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs that underwent extirpation of a cranial mediastinal mass by means of VATS at 5 academic referral hospitals from 2009 through 2014.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging results, surgical approach and duration, cytologic and histologic examination results, complications, outcome, and cause of death, when applicable.

RESULTS 16 dogs had a thymoma, 1 had thymic anaplastic carcinoma, and 1 had hemangiosarcoma. Seven had both megaesophagus and myasthenia gravis. Median approximate tumor volume was 113.1 cm3 (interquartile range, 33.5 to 313.3 cm3). Median duration of VATS was 117.5 minutes (interquartile range, 91.5 to 136.3 minutes). Conversion to an open thoracic surgical procedure was required for 2 dogs, 1 of which died during surgery. Median survival time following VATS for dogs with thymoma and concurrent myasthenia gravis and megaesophagus was 20 days. Dogs with thymoma without paraneoplastic syndrome survived for ≥ 60 days, and none of these dogs died of disease-related causes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE VATS appeared to be an acceptable approach for extirpation of masses from the cranial mediastinum in dogs under certain conditions. Dogs with myasthenia gravis and megaesophagus had a poor postoperative outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association