Objective—To determine whether pigs can be infected
with strains of vesicular stomatitis virus New
Jersey (VSV-NJ) and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana
(VSV-I) isolated during recent vesicular stomatitis outbreaks
that primarily involved horses in the western
United States and determine the potential for these
viruses to be transmitted by contact.
Procedure—Pigs were challenged with VSV-NJ or
VSV-I from the 1995 and 1997 outbreaks of vesicular
stomatitis in the western United States, respectively,
or with VSV-NJ (OS) associated with vesicular stomatitis
in feral pigs on Ossabaw Island, Ga. Pigs
(3/group) were inoculated with each virus via 3 routes
and evaluated for viral shedding, seroconversion, and
the development of vesicular lesions. In another
experiment, the potential for contact transmission of
each virus from experimentally infected to naïve pigs
Results—Infection of pigs was achieved for all 3
viruses as determined by virus isolation and detection
of seroconversion. In inoculated pigs, all 3 viruses
were isolated from multiple swab samples at concentrations
sufficient to infect other pigs. However, compared
with results obtained with the 2 VSV-NJ strains,
viral titers associated with VSV-I were low and the
duration of virus shedding was reduced. Results from
the contact transmission trials were consistent with
these results; virus transmission was detected most
frequently with the VSV-NJ strains.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pigs can be
infected with VSV-NJ and VSV-I. Differences in the
extent of viral shedding and potential for contact
transmission were apparent between serotypes but
not between the VSV-NJ strains investigated. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1233–1239)
Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic
gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach
position and strength of the adhesion between the
stomach and abdominal wall.
Animals—8 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the
abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A
laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted
on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus.
Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted
lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus
muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a
longitudinal incision was made through the serosa
and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the
seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured
to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery,
positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate
stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying,
and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach
wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1
month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion
Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of
gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and
the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal
wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of
the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic
gastropexy technique described in the present
study could be performed quickly and easily by an
experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous
adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall,
and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)
Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique
for cystopexy in dogs.
Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female
dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of
the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male
dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured
to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the
serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised
and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and
internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored
daily for 30 days after surgery.
Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and
voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic
(leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry)
and contrast radiographic studies performed
30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained
before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned
dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently
euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed
at the same time as the cystopexy.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy
to perform, and not associated with urinary tract
infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine how viral shedding and
development or lack of clinical disease relate to contact
transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus New
Jersey (VSV-NJ) in pigs and determine whether pigs
infected by contact could infect other pigs by contact.
Procedure—Serologically naive pigs were housed in
direct contact with pigs that were experimentally
inoculated with VSV-NJ via ID inoculation of the apex
of the snout, application to a scarified area of the oral
mucosa, application to intact oral mucosa, or ID inoculation
of the ear. In a second experiment, pigs infected
with VSV-NJ by contact were moved and housed
with additional naive pigs. Pigs were monitored and
sampled daily for clinical disease and virus isolation
and were serologically tested before and after infection
Results—Contact transmission developed only when
vesicular lesions were evident. Transmission developed
rapidly; contact pigs shed virus as early as 1 day
after contact. In pens in which contact transmission
was detected, 2 of 3 or 3 of 3 contact pigs were
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transmission
was lesion-dependent; however, vesicular lesions
often were subtle with few or no clinical signs of
infection. Contact transmission was efficient, with
resulting infections ranging from subclinical (detected
only by seroconversion) to clinical (development of
vesicular lesions). Long-term maintenance of VSV-NJ
via contact transmission alone appears unlikely. Pigs
represent an efficient large-animal system for further
study of VSV-NJ pathogenesis and transmission. (Am
J Vet Res 2001;62:516–520)
Case Description—A 40.3-kg (88.7-lb) 6-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever was evaluated because of acute unilateral epistaxis.
Clinical Findings—During the initial evaluation of the dog, systemic hypertension and a left adrenal gland mass were detected. The left adrenal gland mass was surgically removed; results of histologic examination of the mass indicated it was a pheochromocytoma. Ten months later, the dog was evaluated because of persistent systemic hypertension and development of polyuria, polydipsia, and excessive panting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mass in the cranial aspect of the right adrenal gland; results of MRI suggested the mass was a malignant tumor.
Treatment and Outcome—Epistaxis resolved after treatment and resolution of severe systemic hypertension. A partial right adrenalectomy was performed to remove the right adrenal gland mass. Results of histologic examination of the mass indicated it was a well-differentiated carcinoma of the cortex of the adrenal gland. Results of ACTH stimulation tests after surgery indicated the dog had adequate adrenal gland function.
Clinical Relevance—Partial adrenalectomy may be a safe and feasible treatment option to preserve adrenal gland function in dogs with small eccentrically located adrenal gland masses, particularly for dogs that have undergone removal of the contralateral adrenal gland.
To determine whether an enrofloxacin–silver sulfadiazine emulsion (ESS) labeled for treatment of otitis externa in dogs has ototoxic effects in rabbits following myringotomy.
6 healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits.
Rabbits were anesthetized for brainstem auditory-evoked response (BAER) tests on day 0. Myringotomy was performed, and BAER testing was repeated. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and ESS were then instilled in the left and right middle ears, respectively, and BAER testing was repeated prior to recovery of rabbits from anesthesia. Application of assigned treatments was continued every 12 hours for 7 days, and rabbits were anesthetized for BAER testing on day 8. Rabbits were euthanized, and samples were collected for histologic (6 ears/treatment) and scanning electron microscopic (1 ear/treatment) examination.
Most hearing thresholds (11/12 ears) were subjectively increased after myringotomy, with BAER measurements ranging from 30 to 85 dB in both ears. All day 8 hearing thresholds exceeded baseline (premyringotomy) values; results ranged from 30 to 85 dB and 80 to > 95 dB (the upper test limit) in saline solution–treated and ESS-treated ears, respectively. All ESS-treated ears had heterophilic otitis externa, epithelial hyperplasia of the external ear canal, various degrees of mucoperiosteal edema, and periosteal new bone formation on histologic examination. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that most outer hair cells in the ESS-treated ear lacked stereocilia or were absent.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results supported that ESS has ototoxic effects in the middle ear of rabbits. Further research is needed to confirm these findings. Myringotomized laboratory rabbits may be useful to study ototoxicity of drugs used in human medicine.