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Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old 8.6-kg (18.9-lb) spayed female Pug was evaluated because of chronic hematuria and recurrent urinary tract infections.

Clinical Findings—Excretory urography, ultrasonography, and excretory CT urography were performed. Results indicated that the dog had bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter and suspected proximal ureteral stenosis. Retrograde ureteropyelography confirmed the presence of stenosis at the ureteropelvic junction of each ureter, along with a large amount of endoluminal ureteral debris. Clinical findings suggested that the dog had a congenital bilateral anomaly of the upper urinary tract.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog was anesthetized, and 2 double-pigtail ureteral stents were placed cystoscopically with fluoroscopic guidance for immediate relief of the ureteropelvic junction obstructions. Each stent extended from the left or right renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. The procedures and the patient's recovery from anesthesia were uncomplicated. Continuing improvements in severity of hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and dysuria were evident during routine follow-up examinations at 2, 4, 12, 16, and 45 weeks after stent placement. Over the subsequent 12 months, all clinical signs remained resolved other than a urinary tract infection that was successfully treated with antimicrobials.

Clinical Relevance—Ureteral stenosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for hydronephrosis in dogs, particularly when urinary tract calculi or neoplasia is not present. Chronic hematuria and recurrent urinary tract infections can be associated with this condition. Placement of ureteral stents may be a successful treatment option for ameliorization of congenital ureteral obstructions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe and evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes in female dogs after cystoscopic-guided laser ablation of ectopic ureters (CLA-EU).

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—32 incontinent female dogs with intramural ectopic ureters.

Procedures—A diagnosis of intramural ectopic ureters was made via cystoscopy and fluoroscopy in all patients. Transurethral CLA-EU (via diode laser [n = 27] or Holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser [3]) was performed to relocate the ectopic ureteral orifice cranially into the urinary bladder. All vaginal anomalies were treated with the laser concurrently. Follow-up evaluation was standardized and included urinary continence scoring, serial bacteriologic culture of urine samples, and a follow-up cystoscopy 6 to 8 weeks after CLA-EU.

Results—Ectopic ureteral orifices of all dogs were initially located in the urethra. Eighteen of 30 dogs had bilateral ectopic ureters, and 12 had unilateral ectopic ureters. All dogs had other concurrent urinary anomalies. At the time of last follow-up (median, 2.7 years after CLA-EU, [range, 12 to 62 months]), 14 of 30 (47%) dogs did not require any additional treatments following CLA-EU to maintain urinary continence. For the 16 residually incontinent dogs, the addition of medical management, transurethral bulking-agent injection, or placement of a hydraulic occluder was effective in 3, 2, and 4 dogs, respectively, improving the overall urinary continence rate to 77% (23/30 dogs). One dog had evidence of polypoid cystitis at the neoureteral orifice 6 weeks after CLA-EU that was resolved at 3 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CLA-EU provided an effective, safe, and minimally invasive alternative to surgery for intramural ectopic ureters in female dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An 11-year-old spayed female Collie was evaluated because of regurgitation, dysphagia, severe ptyalism, coughing, and weight loss of approximately 12 weeks’ duration. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma had been diagnosed prior to referral on the basis of results of radiographic and endoscopic examination and histologic evaluation of biopsy samples. A percutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy (PEG) tube had been inserted 2 weeks prior to referral, and the dog was being treated for infection at the gastrostomy site.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings included marked ptyalism, stertor, and inflammation and discharge at the gastrostomy site.

Treatment and Outcome—Surgical options were declined by the owner, and palliative treatment was chosen to alleviate clinical signs and facilitate PEG tube removal. With fluoroscopic guidance, a self-expanding metallic stent was placed in the esophageal lumen at the site of obstruction. Botulinum toxin A was injected into the mandibular salivary glands under ultrasonographic guidance as treatment for severe ptyalism. Following discharge, clinical improvement was reported until euthanasia for unrelated disease 12 weeks after stent placement. Necropsy revealed that the stent had not migrated and had remained patent with some tumor ingrowth but no evidence of stricture or obstruction.

Clinical Relevance—Esophageal stenting effectively treated obstruction and improved clinical signs and may be beneficial for palliative treatment in other animals with malignant esophageal tumors. Although the degree to which botulinum toxin A injection into salivary glands improved clinical signs could not be determined, it may potentially be useful as adjunctive treatment to reduce severe ptyalism.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.

ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females).

PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.

RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinical laboratory abnormalities, etiology, and outcome in cats with spontaneous hemoperitoneum.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—65 client-owned cats with spontaneous hemoperitoneum.

Procedures—Medical records of cats with spontaneous hemoperitoneum at 7 large referral clinics were reviewed. Cats were included if a definitive diagnosis of spontaneous hemoperitoneum could be obtained from review of the medical records.

Results—65 cats met inclusion criteria. The most common historical findings were lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Common findings on physical examination included inadequate hydration status and hypothermia. The most common clinicopathologic abnormalities were high serum AST activity, anemia, prolonged prothrombin time, and prolonged partial thromboplastin time. Forty-six percent (30/65) of cats had abdominal neoplasia, and 54% (35/65) had nonneoplastic conditions. Hemangiosarcoma was the most often diagnosed neoplasm (18/30; 60%), and the spleen was the most common location for neoplasia (11/30; 37%). Eight cats survived to be discharged from the hospital. Cats with neoplasia were significantly older and had significantly lower PCVs than cats with non-neoplastic disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Spontaneous hemoperitoneum in cats often results in debilitating clinical consequences. In contrast to dogs with hemoperitoneum, the cause of hemoperitoneum in cats is approximately evenly distributed between neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Although only a few cats were treated in this study, the prognosis appears poor.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the use of sclerotherapy for the renal-sparing treatment of idiopathic renal hematuria (IRH) in dogs and report clinical outcomes.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—6 dogs (8 renal pelvises) with IRH.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent sclerotherapy were reviewed. Each ureterovesicular junction was identified cystoscopically to determine the side of bleeding, and a retrograde ureteropyelogram was performed with endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. A ureteropelvic junction balloon was used for ureteral occlusion, and pelvis filling volumes were recorded. A povidone iodine mixture, followed by a sterile silver nitrate solution, was infused into the renal pelvis. A double-pigtail ureteral stent was placed after the procedure. Information on preprocedure and postprocedure biochemical changes, imaging parameters, and clinical outcomes was obtained.

Results—6 dogs (5 males and 1 female) had sclerotherapy for unilateral (4) or bilateral (2) bleeding. Five were right-sided and 3 were left-sided. The median age and weight of dogs were 3 years and 42.4 kg (93.28 lb), respectively. Median procedure time was 150 minutes. One dog that did not have a ureteral stent placed following the procedure developed short-term signs of renal pain and pyelectasis. Cessation of macroscopic hematuria occurred in 4 of 6 dogs (median, 6 hours). Two additional dogs improved moderately. Median follow-up time was 8 months (range, 3.5 to 20.5 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical sclerotherapy for IRH was safe and effective. Local sclerotherapy for IRH in dogs could be considered a valuable and minimally invasive renal-sparing treatment over ureteronephrectomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the accuracy of 4 preoperative parameters (signalment, urinalysis, urine microbiological culture, and digital radiography) in predicting urocystolith composition, compare accuracy between evaluators of varying clinical experience and a mobile application, and propose a novel algorithm to improve accuracy.

ANIMALS

175 client-owned dogs with quantitative analyses of urocystoliths between January 1, 2012, and July 31, 2020.

METHODS

Prospective experimental study. Canine urocystolith cases were randomly presented to 6 blinded “stone evaluators” (rotating interns, radiologists, internists) in 3 rounds, each separated by 2 weeks: case data alone, case data with a urolith teaching lecture, and case data with a novel algorithm. Case data were also entered into the Minnesota Urolith Center mobile application. Prediction accuracy was determined by comparison to quantitative laboratory stone analysis results.

RESULTS

Prediction accuracy of evaluators varied with experience when shown case data alone (accuracy, 57% to 82%) but improved with a teaching lecture (accuracy, 76% to 89%) and further improved with a novel algorithm (accuracy, 93% to 96%). Mixed stone compositions were the most incorrectly predicted type. Mobile application accuracy was 74%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of the 4 preoperative parameters resulted in variable accuracy of urocystolith composition predictions among evaluators. The proposed novel algorithm improves accuracy for all clinicians, surpassing accuracy of the mobile application, and may help guide patient management.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association