OBJECTIVE To evaluate perioperative morbidity and outcome in dogs and cats undergoing esophageal surgery.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 63 client-owned dogs and 9 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent esophageal surgery were reviewed for information on signalment, history, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, condition treated, details of surgery, intraoperative complications, and postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via veterinarian and client telephone conversations. The relationship between complications and survival to hospital discharge was evaluated by means of regression analysis.
RESULTS The most common indication for surgical intervention was an esophageal foreign body in dogs (50/63 [79%]) and esophageal stricture in cats (3/9). Complications were documented in 54% (34/63) of dogs and 3 of 9 cats. The most common immediate postoperative complications were respiratory in nature (9 dogs, 1 cat). Partial esophagectomy and resection with anastomosis were significantly associated with the development of immediate postoperative complications in dogs. The most common delayed postoperative complications were persistent regurgitation (7 dogs) and esophageal stricture formation (3 dogs, 1 cat). For dogs, a mass lesion and increasing lesion size were significantly associated with the development of delayed postoperative complications. Six dogs (10%) and 1 cat died or were euthanized prior to discharge, and pneumomediastinum and leukopenia were negative prognostic factors for dogs being discharged from the hospital.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that the short-term prognosis for dogs and cats that survive surgery for treatment of esophageal lesions is favorable, with 90% of patients discharged from the hospital (57/63 dogs; 8/9 cats). However, dogs treated for more extensive esophageal lesions as well as those undergoing esophagectomy or resection and anastomosis were more likely to develop postoperative complications.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonoscopic and histologic features of rectal masses in dogs.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 82 client-owned dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy.
PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs with rectal masses that underwent colonoscopy were reviewed. History, signalment, clinical signs, results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging findings, and results of colonoscopy (including complications) were recorded. When available, tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy and by means of surgical biopsy were reviewed by a single board-certified pathologist. Histologic features and tumor grade (when applicable) of tissue samples obtained during colonoscopy versus surgical biopsy were compared.
RESULTS Multiple rectal masses were observed during colonoscopy in 6 of the 82 dogs, but no lesions were visualized orad to the colorectal junction. Results of histologic evaluation of surgical biopsy specimens were consistent with a diagnosis of epithelial neoplasia in 58 of 64 dogs, of which 71% were classified as benign adenoma or polyp and 29% were classified as adenocarcinoma in situ or adenocarcinoma. Complications of colonoscopy occurred in 3 of 82 dogs but were considered minor. A discrepancy in diagnosis occurred in 5 of 16 dogs for which both colonoscopic and surgical biopsy samples were available for histologic review.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that multiple rectal masses are uncommon in dogs, and secondary lesions orad to the colorectal junction were not found in this study. Colonoscopy was associated with few complications, but the need for colonoscopic assessment of the entire colon in this patient population may merit reevaluation.
OBJECTIVE To determine the most common types of injuries in cats surgically treated for thoracic trauma, complications associated with surgical treatment, and factors associated with mortality rate and evaluate the effectiveness of the animal trauma triage (ATT) scoring system for predicting outcome.
DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested observational study.
ANIMALS 23 client-owned cats surgically treated for thoracic trauma at 7 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1990 and 2014.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on signalment, medical history, clinical signs and physical examination findings at initial evaluation, clinicopathologic findings, initial emergency treatments and diagnostic tests performed, type of trauma sustained, imaging findings, surgery details, postoperative complications, duration of hospitalization, and cause of death, if applicable. All variables were evaluated for associations with survival to hospital discharge.
RESULTS Types of trauma that cats had sustained included dog bite or attack (n = 8 [35%]), motor vehicle accident (6 [26%]), other animal attack (2 [9%]), impalement injury or fall (2 [9%]), projectile penetrating trauma (1 [4%]), or unknown origin (4 [17%]). Intrathoracic surgery was required for 65% (15/23) of cats. The overall perioperative mortality rate was 13% (3/23). Mean ± SD ATT scores for surviving and nonsurviving cats were 6.4 ± 2.2 and 10.0 ± 1.7, respectively. Nineteen of 20 cats with no cardiopulmonary arrest survived to discharge, compared with 1 of 3 cats with cardiopulmonary arrest. Only these 2 variables were significantly associated with outcome.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The perioperative mortality rate was low in this series of cats with thoracic trauma; however, those with cardiopulmonary arrest were less likely to survive to hospital discharge than other cats. Cats with a low ATT score were more likely to survive than cats with a high ATT score.
Objective—To describe clinicopathologic features of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or open thoracotomy (OT) and to compare short-term outcomes for dogs following these procedures.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—46 medium- to large-breed dogs with primary lung tumors.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent a lung lobectomy via VATS (n = 22) or OT (24) for resection of primary lung tumors between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they weighed > 10 kg (22 lb) and resection of a primary lung tumor was confirmed histologically. Tumor volumes were calculated from preoperative CT scans where available. Surgical time, completeness of excision, time in the ICU, indwelling thoracic drain time, postoperative and total hospitalization time, incidence of major complications, and short-term survival rate were evaluated.
Results—VATS was performed with a 3-port (n = 12) or 4-port (10) technique and 1-lung ventilation (22). In 2 of 22 (9%) dogs, VATS was converted to OT. All dogs survived to discharge from the hospital. There were no significant differences between the VATS and OT groups with regard to most variables. Surgery time was significantly longer for VATS than for OT (median, 120 vs 95 minutes, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In medium- to large-breed dogs, short-term outcomes for dogs that underwent VATS for lung lobectomy were comparable to those of dogs that underwent OT. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of surgical approach on indices of postoperative pain and long-term outcomes.
OBJECTIVE To determine perioperative mortality rate and identify risk factors associated with outcome in dogs with thoracic trauma that underwent surgical procedures and to evaluate the utility of the animal trauma triage (ATT) score in predicting outcome.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 157 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records databases of 7 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Dogs were included if trauma to the thorax was documented and the patient underwent a surgical procedure. History, signalment, results of physical examination and preoperative laboratory tests, surgical procedure, perioperative complications, duration of hospital stay, and details of follow-up were recorded. Descriptive statistics and ATT scores were calculated, and logistic regression analysis was performed.
RESULTS 123 of 157 (78%) patients underwent thoracic surgery, and 134 of 157 (85.4%) survived to discharge. Mean ± SD ATT score for nonsurvivors was 8 ± 2.4. In the multivariable model, female dogs and dogs that did not experience cardiac arrest as a postoperative complication had odds of survival 6 times and 102 times, respectively, those of male dogs and dogs that did experience cardiac arrest as a postoperative complication. Additionally, patients with a mean ATT score < 7 had odds of survival 5 times those of patients with an ATT score ≥ 7.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The overall perioperative mortality rate was low for patients with thoracic trauma undergoing surgery in this study. However, male dogs and dogs that experienced cardiac arrest had a lower likelihood of survival to discharge. The ATT score may be a useful adjunct to assist clinical decision-making in veterinary patients with thoracic trauma.
To describe surgical technique, biopsy sample quality, and short-term outcome of minimally invasive small intestinal exploration and targeted abdominal organ biopsy (MISIETB) with use of a wound retraction device (WRD) in dogs.
27 client-owned dogs that underwent MISIETB with a WRD at 1 of 4 academic veterinary hospitals between January 1, 2010, and May 1, 2017.
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed, and data collected included signalment; medical history; findings from physical, ultrasonographic, laparoscopic, cytologic, and histologic evaluations; surgical indications, procedures, duration, and complications; and short-term (14-day) outcomes. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of continuous variables, and descriptive statistics were calculated for numeric variables.
Laparoscopic exploration was performed through a multicannulated single port (n = 18), multiple ports (5), or a single 6-mm cannula (4). Median length of the incision for WRD placement was 4 cm (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 3 to 6 cm). All biopsy samples obtained had sufficient diagnostic quality. The 2 most common histologic diagnoses were lymphoplasmacytic enteritis (n = 14) and intestinal lymphoma (5). Twenty-five of 27 (93%) dogs survived to hospital discharge, and 3 (12%) dogs had postsurgical abnormalities unrelated to surgical technique.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that MISIETB with WRD was an effective method for obtaining diagnostic biopsy samples of the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes in dogs. Prospective comparison between MISIETB with WRD and traditional laparotomy for abdominal organ biopsy in dogs is warranted.
Objective—To evaluate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following rectal pull-through (RPT) surgery and the outcome for dogs with rectal tumors.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—74 dogs with rectal masses.
Procedures—Information regarding signalment, history, diagnostic testing, type of rectal disease, surgical details, and postoperative complications, treatments, and outcomes was obtained from medical records and follow-up communications. Survival times were calculated. Descriptive statistics were generated. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of various variables on the development of postsurgical complications and survival time.
Results—58 (78.4%) dogs developed postsurgical complications, the most common of which was fecal incontinence with 42 (56.8%) dogs affected, of which 23 (54.8%) developed permanent incontinence. Other complications included diarrhea (n = 32), tenesmus (23), stricture formation (16), rectal bleeding (8), constipation (7), dehiscence (6), and infection (4). The rectal tumor recurred in 10 dogs. The median survival time was 1,150 days for all dogs and 726 days for dogs with malignant tumors. The 2 most common rectal masses were rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma in situ, and the dogs with these tumors had median survival times of 696 and 1,006 days, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with rectal diseases that underwent RPT surgery had a high incidence of complications; however, those dogs had good local tumor control and survival times. The risk and impact of postsurgical complications on the quality of life and oncological outcomes should be discussed with owners before RPT surgery is performed in dogs with rectal masses.
OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and outcome for cats with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) that underwent surgical excision.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 30 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES Databases of 13 Veterinary Society of Surgical Oncology member–affiliated institutions were searched for records of cats with a histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that underwent tumor excision. For each cat, information regarding signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome was extracted from the medical record. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine median time to local recurrence (TLR), disease-free interval (DFI), and survival time. Cox regression was used to identify factors associated with TLR, DFI, and survival time.
RESULTS Perineal ulceration or discharge was the most common clinical sign in affected cats. Eleven cats developed local recurrence at a median of 96 days after AGASACA excision. Incomplete tumor margins and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for local recurrence. Nuclear pleomorphic score was negatively associated with DFI. Local recurrence and a high nuclear pleomorphic score were risk factors for death. Median DFI and survival time were 234 and 260 days, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, in cats, perineal ulceration or discharge should raise suspicion of AGASACA and prompt rectal and anal sac examinations. Local recurrence was the most common life-limiting event in cats that underwent surgery for treatment of AGASACA, suggesting that wide margins should be obtained whenever possible during AGASACA excision. Efficacy of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of cats with AGASACA requires further investigation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:716–722)
Objective—To describe the clinical characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and factors associated with survival time in a cohort of dogs with lingual neoplasia that underwent surgical excision.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—97 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs with a lingual tumor examined between 1995 and 2008 were reviewed. Records were included if a lingual tumor was confirmed by histologic examination and surgical excision of the mass was attempted. Data were recorded and analyzed to identify prognostic factors.
Results—Clinical signs were mostly related to the oral cavity. For 93 dogs, marginal excision, subtotal glossectomy, and near-total glossectomy were performed in 35 (38%), 55 (59%), and 3 (3%), respectively. Surgery-related complications were rare, but 27 (28%) dogs had tumor recurrence. The most common histopathologic diagnoses for the 97 dogs were squamous cell carcinoma (31 [32%]) and malignant melanoma (29 [30%]). Eighteen (19%) dogs developed metastatic disease, and the overall median survival time was 483 days. Median survival time was 216 days for dogs with squamous cell carcinoma and 241 days for dogs with malignant melanoma. Dogs with lingual tumors ≥ 2 cm in diameter at diagnosis had a significantly shorter survival time than did dogs with tumors < 2 cm.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Similar to previous studies, results indicated that lingual tumors are most commonly malignant, and squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma predominate. A thorough physical examination to identify lingual tumors at an early stage and surgical treatment after tumor identification are recommended because tumor size significantly affected survival time.
To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.
459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.
Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.
271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.