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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of tramadol for treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.

DESIGN Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study.

ANIMALS 40 dogs with clinical osteoarthritis of the elbow or stifle joint.

PROCEDURES Dogs orally received 3 times/d (morning, midday, and night) for a 10-day period each of 3 identically appearing treatments (placebo; carprofen at 2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], q 12 h [morning and night], with placebo at midday; or tramadol hydrochloride at 5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], q 8 h) in random order, with treatment sessions separated by a minimum 7-day washout period. Vertical ground reaction forces (vertical impulse [VI] and peak vertical force [PVF]) were measured and Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) scores assigned prior to (baseline) and at the end of each treatment period. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to compare VI and PVF data among and within treatments, and the χ2 test was used to compare proportions of dogs with a CBPI-defined positive response to treatment.

RESULTS 35 dogs completed the study. No significant changes from baseline in VI and PVF were identified for placebo and tramadol treatments; however, these values increased significantly with carprofen treatment. Changes from baseline in VI and PVF values were significantly greater with carprofen versus placebo or tramadol treatment. A significant improvement from baseline in CBPI scores was identified with carprofen treatment but not placebo or tramadol treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE 10 days of treatment with tramadol as administered (5 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) provided no clinical benefit for dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow or stifle joint.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the validity of finite element analysis (FEA) as a means of examining biomechanical properties of the Kirschner-Ehmer external skeletal fixation system.

Sample Population

10 paired tibiae harvested from skeletally mature dogs weighing between 30 and 38 kg immediately following euthanasia for reasons unrelated to musculoskeletal disease.

Procedure

A gap fracture was created in each bone; fragments were stabilized with 3 frame configurations (type I, type II, and type III), using enhanced-profile threaded pins. Each bone-frame construct was tested, using a materials testing machine in 3 modes of testing: axial compression (AC), mediolateral (ML) bending, and craniocaudal (CC) bending, for a total of 9 tests/bone. The elastic limit of the constructs was not exceeded during testing. Mean stiffness values were determined from load-displacement curves. A finite element model of each construct was created, using three-dimensional elastic beam elements, and stiffness values were calculated, using FEA. Correlations between experimental and FEA data then were determined.

Results

Significant differences in stiffness were seen among all 3 constructs in CC bending and AC, with stiffness increasing with construct complexity. No significant difference in ML bending stiffness was seen between type-II and type-III constructs; however, both were significantly stiffer than the type-I constructs. The experimental and FEA stiffness data were strongly correlated (AC, r = 0.994; ML bending, r = 0.998; CC bending, r = 0.985).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Strong correlations among experimental and FEA data indicate that FEA is a valid method of comparing stiffness of Kirschner-Ehmer external skeletal fixation constructs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:615–620)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To describe clinical features of dogs < 2 years old with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) and to evaluate breed, sex, and body weight as risk factors.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

201 dogs < 2 years old with rupture of the CCL and 804 age-matched control dogs.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for breed, sex, and body weight, and results were compared with results of age-matched control dogs.

Results

Breed predisposition was detected for Neapolitan Mastiff, Akita, Saint Bernard, Rottweiler, Mastiff, Newfoundland, Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Labrador Retriever, and American Staffordshire Terrier. Increased risk was detected for neutered males and neutered females, compared with sexually intact males and sexually intact females, respectively. Differences in prevalence of rupture of the CCL were not detected between all males and females, sexually intact males and sexually intact females, or neutered males and neutered females. Body weights of dogs with ruptured CCL were significantly greater than those of control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Several large breeds of dogs are predisposed to rupture of the CCL at a young age. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:811–814)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To measure and compare values of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in synovial fluid from canine joints with osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to naturally acquired cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture and experimental CCL transection.

Animals

57 dogs (clinical group) with OA secondary to CCL rupture; 5 dogs (experimental group) with OA secondary to CCL transection; 19 control dogs with normal joints.

Procedure

Joints were radiographed and graded for severity of OA. Synovial fluid was collected from dogs: at surgery from the clinical group, at 90 days after surgery from the experimental group, and at necropsy from the control group. Activities of IL-6 and TNF, as well as concentration of the NO metabolites (NO2 /NO3 ) were measured, and results were reported as mean ± SEM.

Results

IL-6 activity in dogs of the clinical (290 ± 40 U/ml) and experimental (494 ± 165 U/ml) groups was greater than that in control dogs (6 ± 1.6 U/ml; P < 0.05). The TNF values in dogs of the clinical (3.0 ± 0.5 pg/ml) and experimental (2.0 ± 0.9 pg/ml) groups were lower than those in control dogs (8.6 ± 2.3 pg/ml; P < 0.05). The IL-6 values were negatively associated with radiographic score of OA and were positively associated with age (R 2 = 26.5%, P < 0.05).

Conclusion

Dogs with OA secondary to naturally acquired CCL rupture and experimental CCL transection had significantly different alterations in synovial fluid IL-6 and TNF values. The decrease in IL-6 activity with advancing OA was independent of the increase in IL-6 activity with aging.

Clinical Relevance

IL-6 and TNF may be involved in pathogenesis of OA secondary to naturally acquired and experimentally induced CCL rupture. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1027–1032)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate clinical and biomechanical gait variables in a group of dogs before and after (for 1 year) total hip replacement.

Animals

16 dogs with degenerative joint disease of the coxofemoral joint secondary to hip dysplasia deemed candidates for total hip replacement.

Procedure

Before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, each dog was trotted over a biomechanical force platform. Vertical force data evaluated for each stance phase of the treated and untreated hind limbs included peak force, impulse, and limb loading and unloading rates. Vertical peak and impulse data were also evaluated for the forelimbs. Measurements analyzed in the craniocaudal axis, divided into braking and propulsion phases, consisted of peak force and associated impulses. Also, orthopedic examination for each dog included subjective scoring for limb lameness at each evaluation period.

Results

Most ground reaction forces (GRF) were significantly lower before surgery for the proposed treated, compared with the proposed untreated, limb. This difference between limbs continued through postoperative month 1. Also at 1 month, some treated limb values were significantly lower than preoperative values. By 3 to 6 months, treated limb GRF increased so that no significant difference between limbs could be found. Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion impulse values were significantly higher in the treated than untreated limb from the 6-month evaluation period through the remainder of the study. Braking component of the craniocaudal axes measurements was unchanged throughout the study.

Conclusions

GRF indicated that dogs of this study had significantly increased loading function of the treated hind limb by 6 months after unilateral total hip replacement. Data also indicated that some force was transferred from the untreated to treated hip over the study period. Loading rates also increased over the study period, indicating increased willingness to load the treated hip over time. Craniocaudal axis data ndicated no improvement in braking forces with coxofemoral joint replacement, suggesting that the coxofemoral joint with degenerative joint disease did not have altered braking performance at a trotting gait. Comparison of subjective lameness scores and objective GRF indicated that visual grading of coxofemoral joint lameness is limited. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1781–1785)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent, was administered orally to 4 healthy dogs at dosage of approximately 11 and 23 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours for 4 days, with a 4-week interval between dosing regimens. Serum and tissue cage fluid (tcf) concentrations of ciprofloxacin were measured after the first and seventh dose of each dosing regimen. The peak concentration was greatest in the serum after multiple doses of 23 mg/kg (mean ± sem; 5.68 ± 0.54 μg/ml) and least in the tcf after a single dose of 11 mg/kg (0.43 ± 0.54 μg/ml). The time to peak concentration was not influenced by multiple dosing or drug dose, but was longer for tcf (6.41 ± 0.52 hour) than for serum (1.53 ± 0.52 hour). Accumulation of ciprofloxacin was reflected by the area under the concentration curve from 0 to 12 hours after administration (AUC0→12). The AUC0→12 was greatest in the serum after multiple doses of 23 mg/kg (31.95 ± 1.90 μg·h/ml) and least in the tcf after a single dose of 11 mg/kg (3.87 ± 1.90 μg·h/ml). The elimination half-life was not influenced by multiple dosing or dose concentration, but was greater for tcf (14.59 ± 1.91 hours) than for serum (5.14 ± 1.91 hours). The percentage of tcf penetration (AUCTCF/AUCserum ) was greater after multiple doses (95.76 ± 6.79%) than after a single dose (55.55 ± 6.79%) and was not different between doses of 11 and 23 mg/kg. Both dosing regimens of ciprofloxacin resulted in continuous serum and tcf concentrations > 90% of the minimal inhibitory concentration for the aerobic and facultative anaerobic clinical isolates tested, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Limb symmetry was evaluated by measuring ground reaction forces in 2 groups of normal-gaited dogs at a trot. Data were collected from 2 groups of 21 dogs trotted at dog/handler velocities of 1.25 to 1.55 m/s and 1.85 to 2.05 m/s, respectively. Of these dogs, 9 participated in both groups to allow comparison of data at both velocities. Additionally, 16 of the dogs in group 1 were measured in 2 directions of movement to determine whether directional dependence was present. Collected data were then applied to 3 described symmetry indices.

Each index was easy to calculate, but all had limitations. A major limitation was variation in magnitude of ground reaction forces measured between the different axes and the effect of this variation on precision of the derived indices. Vertical ground forces provided the most consistent symmetry indices, in part because of their large magnitude. The indices indicated that no dog had perfect right-to-left symmetry during a trotting gait. Statistical differences were not found in any of the measurements of directional dependence. Likewise, comparing symmetry data in dogs trotted at both velocities indicated no significant differences in any axis.

However, further analysis of the data revealed the actual amount that a variance attributable to right-left limb variation was negligible. Most of the variance was attributable to trial variation. Thus, the aforementioned indices, which use nonconsecutive footfall methods to evaluate limb symmetry, actually measure principally trial variation and not limb-to-limb variation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the ability of perzinfotel (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist) and a proprietary phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor to attenuate lameness in dogs with sodium urate (SU)–induced synovitis.

Animals—8 adult dogs.

Procedures—A blinded 4-way crossover study was performed. Dogs received perzinfotel (10 mg/kg), a proprietary PLA2 inhibitor (10 mg/kg), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg; positive control treatment), or no treatment (negative control treatment). On the fourth day after initiation of treatment, synovitis was induced via intra-articular injection of SU 1 hour before administration of the last treatment dose. Ground reaction forces were measured and clinical lameness evaluations were performed before (baseline [time 0]) and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 25 hours after SU injection. There was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVAs.

Results—Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) values for negative control and perzinfotel treatments were significantly lower at 2 and 4 hours, compared with baseline values. Values for PVF and VI for the PLA2 inhibitor and positive control treatments did not differ from baseline values at any time points. Between-treatment comparisons revealed significantly higher PVF and VI values for the positive control treatment than for the negative control and perzinfotel treatments at 2 and 4 hours. Values for VI were higher for PLA2 inhibitor treatment than for negative control treatment at 2 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Perzinfotel did not significantly alter SU–induced lameness. The proprietary PLA2 inhibitor attenuated lameness but not as completely as did carprofen.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in healthy green iguanas following PO and IV administration and assess potential toxicity.

Animals—21 healthy green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

Procedures—To assess pharmacokinetics, 13 iguanas were administered a single dose (0.2 mg/kg) of meloxicam PO and, 14 days later, the same dose IV. To assess potential toxicity, 4 iguanas were given meloxicam at a dosage of 1 or 5 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 12 days, and results of histologic examination were compared with results for another 4 iguanas given a single dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg).

Results—There were no significant differences between PO and IV administration with regard to terminal half-life (mean ± SD, 12.96 ± 8.05 hours and 9.93 ± 4.92 hours, respectively), mean area under the curve to the last measured concentration (5.08 ± 1.62 μg•h/mL and 5.83 ± 2.49 μg•h/mL), volume of distribution (745 ± 475 mL/kg and 487 ± 266 mL/kg), or clearance (40.17 ± 10.35 mL/kg/h and 37.17 ± 16.08 mL/kg/h). Maximum plasma concentration was significantly greater following IV (0.63 ± 0.17 μg/mL) versus PO (0.19 ± 0.07 μg/mL) administration. Time from administration to maximum plasma concentration and mean residence time were significantly longer following PO versus IV administration. Daily administration of high doses (1 or 5 mg/kg) for 12 days did not induce any histologic changes in gastric, hepatic, or renal tissues.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that administration of meloxicam at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg IV or PO in green iguanas would result in plasma concentrations > 0.1 μg/mL for approximately 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1277–1283)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare ground reaction forces (GRFs) measured by use of a pressure-sensitive walk-way (PSW) and a force plate (FP) and evaluate weekly variation in the GRFs and static vertical forces in dogs.

Animals—34 clinically normal dogs and 5 research dogs with lameness.

Procedure—GRF data were collected from 5 lame and 14 clinically normal dogs by use of an FP and a PSW. Peak vertical force (PVF), vertical impulse (VI), and velocity measurements (determined by use of photocells and PSW data) were compared between groups. Peak vertical force, VI, stride length, ground phase time (ie, contact time), and static body weight distribution data were collected on 2 occasions, 1 week apart, in 20 different clinically normal dogs by use of a PSW; week-to-week variation in values was evaluated.

Results—Measurements of velocity derived by use of the photocells were not different from those derived by use of the PSW. For any 1 limb, values derived by use of the PSW were significantly lower than values derived with the FP. For values obtained by use of either technique, there were no differences between left and right limbs except for values of PVF measured via PSW in forelimbs. Values of PVF, VI, contact time, stride length, and static weight distribution generated by the PSW did not vary from week to week.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values for GRFs varied between the FP and PSW. However, data derived by use of PSW were consistent and could be used to evaluate kinetic variables over time in the same dog.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research