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Abstract

Objective—To identify associations among change in body weight, behavioral stress score, food intake score, and development of upper respiratory tract infection (URI) among cats admitted to an animal shelter.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—60 adult cats admitted to an animal shelter.

Procedures—Body weight was measured on days 0 (intake), 7, 14, and 21. Behavioral stress and food intake were scored daily for the first 7 days; cats were monitored daily for URI.

Results—49 of the 60 (82%) cats lost weight during at least 1 week while in the shelter. Fifteen (25%) cats lost ≥ 10% of their body weight while in the shelter. Thirty-five of the 60 (58%) cats developed URI prior to exiting the shelter, and only 4 cats remained at least 21 days without developing URI. Cats with high stress scores during the first week were 5.6 times as likely to develop URI as were cats with low stress scores. Food intake and stress scores were negatively correlated (r = −0.98).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats admitted to an animal shelter were likely to lose weight while in the shelter and likely to develop URI, and that cats that had high stress scores were more likely to develop URI.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome of penetrating injuries to the central region of the foot in equids and identify factors that may affect treatment and outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—63 equids (61 horses, 1 pony, and 1 mule).

Procedures—Records of equids incurring puncture wounds through the frog (cuneus ungulae) or collateral sulci of the foot between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. Evaluated factors that were hypothesized to affect outcome included signalment, degree of lameness, foot affected, duration between injury and admission, and treatment. Injuries were graded from 1 (< 1 inch; involving superficial corium only) to 4 (involving a synovial structure) on the basis of severity of penetration as determined by radiographic evidence or findings on synoviocentesis at the time of admission.

Results—Overall, 60% (38/63) of equids returned to soundness. Thirteen equids were euthanized on the basis of synovial structure involvement and financial constraints. Of 35 equids that were treated conservatively, which may have included undergoing a surgical procedure with the horse standing, 32 (91.4%) returned to their previous level of soundness. Fifteen equids underwent surgical treatment under general anesthesia, of which 6 (40%) became sound for intended use. Ten of 34 (29%) equids with synovial structure involvement regained soundness. Equids treated earlier after injury had a better prognosis. Equids with a hind foot injury had a more favorable outcome than those with a forefoot injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that penetrating injuries located centrally in the foot of equids without involvement of a synovial structure have a favorable prognosis, especially if managed early. Penetration of a synovial structure provided a poor prognosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of complications and identify risk factors associated with development of complications following routine castration of equids.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—311 horses, 10 mules, and 3 donkeys.

Procedures—Medical records of equids undergoing routine castration were reviewed. Age, breed, surgical techniques (closed vs semiclosed castration and use of ligatures), anesthesia method (general IV anesthesia vs standing sedation with local anesthesia) and repeated administration of IV anesthetic agents, administration of antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs, and details regarding development, management, and outcome of complications were recorded. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Associations between additional doses of anesthetic agents during surgery and development of complications were analyzed with a Jonckheere-Terpstra test.

Results—33 of 324 (10.2%) equids developed a complication after surgery; 32 recovered and 1 was euthanized because of eventration. Equids that underwent semiclosed castration had significantly higher odds of developing a complication (OR, 4.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.09 to 10.6) than did those that underwent closed castration. Equids that received additional doses of anesthetic agents to maintain adequate general anesthesia developed complications more frequently than those that did not require this treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of complications was low, and most evaluated variables were not significantly associated with development of complications following castration in equids. However, findings suggested that the choice of surgical technique (closed vs semiclosed) is an important factor in this regard. Future studies should investigate whether duration of surgery is associated with complications following castration in equids.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine how frequently Malassezia spp were identified on the periocular skin of dogs and assess the respective associations between the presence of Malassezia spp on the periocular skin and blepharitis, ocular discharge, and the application of ophthalmic medications.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—167 eyelids of 84 dogs.

Procedures—Samples obtained from the surface of the eyelid skin by use of adhesive tape were evaluated cytologically for the presence of Malassezia spp. Dogs were grouped on the basis of the presence of blepharitis, nature of ocular discharge, and whether ophthalmic medications were applied, and the proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was compared among the groups.

ResultsMalassezia spp were detected in 19 samples, of which 15 were obtained from eyes without blepharitis and 14 were obtained from eyes treated with topical ophthalmic medications. The proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was significantly higher for eyes with ocular discharge than for eyes without ocular discharge, especially if that discharge was mucoid or mucopurulent, and for eyes that were treated with aqueous-based medications only or a combination of oil- and aqueous-based medications than for eyes that were not treated.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceMalassezia organisms were detected on the periocular skin of 3 of 56 (5%) clinically normal dogs. Malassezia organisms were also frequently found on the periocular skin of dogs that had mucoid or mucopurulent ocular discharge or that were administered topical aqueous-based ophthalmic medications, and the periocular skin of these dogs should be cytologically evaluated for Malassezia organisms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1304–1308)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine which dog breeds are at low and high risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM).

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—Hospital population of 221 dogs with DM and 42,882 dogs without DM during 5.5 years.

Procedure—165 breeds (including a mixed-breed category) were represented in the hospital population. Breed-specific expected numbers of dogs with DM were calculated by multiplying the proportion of all dogs admitted to the hospital that were determined to have DM during the study period by the breed-specific totals during the study period. Breeds or breed groups evaluated in the analysis (n = 20) were restricted to those that had a combined observed and expected count > 5 to document breeds at low and high risk for developing DM. Proportionate changes in the risk of developing DM by breed were calculated and presented using exact odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values. Mixed-breed dogs were chosen as the reference breed.

Results—Samoyeds, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Poodles, Pugs, and Toy Poodles were at high risk for developing DM. Dog breeds found to be at low risk for developing DM were German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, and American Pit Bull Terrier.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The finding that certain dog breeds are at low or high risk for developing DM suggests that some genetic defects may predispose dogs to development of DM, whereas other genetic factors may protect dogs from development of DM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 1414–1417)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) after IV administration of 3 doses of atropine to clinically normal, large-breed adult dogs.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs, weighing between 23 and 50 kg.

Procedure

Continuous ECG were recorded prior to and following IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg of atropine/kg of body weight. Heart rate and HRV within sympathetic and parasympathetic domains were determined, using customized software, and responses to treatments were compared. Each dog received all treatments with ≥ 2 days between treatments.

Results

HR increased and HRV within the parasympathetic domain decreased after all atropine treatments, compared with pretreatment values. Heart rate was significantly higher after administration of 0.06 mg of atropine/kg than after 0.02 mg/kg but was not different from HR after administration of 0.04 mg/kg. Five of 6 dogs given the 0.04 or 0.06 mg/kg dose attained HR > 135 beats/min, but only 1 of 6 dogs given the 0.02 mg/kg dose attained a HR > 135 beats/min. Heart rate variability within the parasympathetic domain decreased significantly from pretreatment values after all atropine treatments. Atropine doses of 0.04 and 0.06 mg/kg induced significantly lower HRV than did the 0.02 mg/kg dose, but HRV after the higher doses were not different from each other. HRV within the sympathetic domain after any treatment did not change from pretreatment values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

IV administration of 0.04 or 0.06 mg of atropine/kg increased HR and induced complete parasympathetic blockade in clinically normal, large-breed adult dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1000-1003)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine the prevalence of hypergastrinemia in cats with naturally developing chronic renal failure (CRF) and the correlation between gastrin concentration in plasma and severity of CRF.

Design—

Cohort study.

Animals—

30 cats with naturally developing CRF and 12 clinically normal control cats.

Procedure—

Gastrin concentrations in plasma were determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from cats after food was withheld 8 hours. Concentrations were compared, using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA.

Results—

18 cats with CRF had high gastrin concentrations (median, 45 pg/ml; range, < 18 to > 1,333 pg/ml), compared with those for control cats (< 18 pg/ml). Prevalence of hypergastrinemia increased with severity of renal insufficiency. Three of 9 cats with mild CRF, 6 of 11 cats with moderate CRF, and 9 of 10 cats with severe CRF had high gastrin concentrations. Gastrin concentrations were significantly different between control cats and cats with CRF, regardless of disease severity.

Clinical Implications—

The potential role of high concentrations of gastrin on gastric hyperacidity, uremic gastritis, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and associated clinical signs of hypergastrinemia (eg, anorexia and vomiting) may justify use of histamine2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors to suppress gastric acid secretion in cats with CRF that have these clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:826-828)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine, among dogs with urolithiasis, whether dogs that had hyperadrenocorticism would be more likely to have calcium-containing uroliths than would dogs that did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocorticism.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Animals

20 dogs that had urolithiasis and hyperadrenocorticism and 42 breed-matched dogs that had urolithiasis but did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocortiosm.

Procedure

Signalment, urolith composition, results of bacterial culture of urine, and results of adrenal axis tests were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression model was created, including terms for age, sex, and hyperadrenocorticism. The outcome variable was presence or absence of calcium-containing uroliths.

Results

Among dogs with urolithiasis, those that had hyperadrenocorticism were 10 times as likely to have calcium-containing uroliths as were dogs that did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocorticism (odds ratio, 10.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 23.4) Neutered and sexually intact females were less likely to have calcium-containing uroliths than were neutered males (odds ratios, 0.041 [95% confidence interval, 0.0057 to 0.29] and 0.024 [95% confidence interval, 0.0012 to 0.5], respectively).

Clinical Implications

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of hyperadrenocorticism may decrease prevalence of calcium-containing uroliths in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:212:1889–1891)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine prevalence and severity of systemic arterial hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with naturally developing diabetes mellitus (DM) and to determine whether these abnormalities were related to age, sex, duration of DM, or degree of control of glycemia.

Design—

Case series and cohort study.

Animals—

Fifty dogs with naturally developing DM.

Procedures—

Blood pressure was measured in all 50 dogs. Thirty-eight dogs were evaluated once, and 12 were evaluated sequentially. Thirty-five were evaluated for proteinuria by determining protein-to-creatinine ratio in urine (n = 35) or by electrophoresis of urine (33).

Results—

Hypertension was detected in 23 on the basis of a systolic pressure > 160 mm HG (12 dogs), a diastolic pressure > 100 mm HG (21), or a mean pressure > 120 mm HG (23). All dogs with systolic hypertension had concurrent diastolic and mean hypertension, and 19 of 21 dogs with diastolic hypertension had concurrent high mean pressure. Ten of 12 dogs reevaluated at subsequent visits had no change in blood pressure. Blood pressure remained consistent in 3 dogs tested at different times during the day on a single visit. Duration of DM and presence of proteinuria were significant predictors of hypertension. Seven of 35 (20%) dogs had an increased protein-to-creatinine ratio in their urine. Albumin concentration and albumin-to-creatinine ratio were significantly higher in urine from diabetic dogs, compared with healthy, nondiabetic dogs. Hypertension was associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

Clinical Implications—

Systemic hypertension and proteinuria may be common in diabetic dogs, but the clinical importance of these findings are, as yet, unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:822-825)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To develop a prototype program for surveillance of causes of death of dogs, using resources developed for the World Wide Web, to enable collection of data from veterinarians in small animal practice and dissemination of results in a timely manner at minimal expense.

Design

Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population

Small animal veterinarians who were members of NOAH, Veterinary Information Network (VIN), or VetPlus-L.

Procedure

Internet electronic communications and Web pages were used for solicitation and collection of data, dissemination of results, and follow-up discussions with participants. Data were stored in a relational database.

Results

25 veterinarians actively submitted case material. On the basis of analysis by region and school of veterinary medicine attended, these veterinarians were representative of all small animal practitioners in the United States. During the 6-month study, 621 case reports were submitted. Analysis of results included determination of number of dogs, with proportions calculated for primary reason for death, primary clinical sign, and breed, as well as creation of a map depicting distribution of the practitioners. Additional data were obtained for analysis to provide information of interest.

Clinical Implications

A national database representative of dogs examined by small animal practitioners would be a valuable source of information. Rapidly and easily accessible return of information and results is important for any surveillance system. The program described here appears to be a successful method for collecting data from practitioners. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:251-256)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association