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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate results of root canal treatment in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—127 tooth roots in 64 dogs.

Procedure—Radiographs obtained before surgery, immediately after surgery, and during follow-up examinations after surgery were evaluated by 2 individuals. Treatment was considered successful if the periodontal ligament space was normal and possible preoperative root resorption, if present, had ceased. Treatment was considered to show no evidence of failure if possible preoperative root resorption had ceased but a preexisting periapical lesion had remained the same or only decreased in size and not complete resolved. Treatment was considered to have failed if a periapical lesion or root resorption developed subsequent to endodontic treatment, if a preexisting periapical lesion had increased in size, or if possible preoperative root resorption appeared to continue after endodontic treatment.

Results—Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 60 months (mean, 13 months). Treatment was classified as successful for 87 (69%) roots, as showing no evidence of failure for 33 (26%) roots, and as having failed for 7 (6%) roots. The success rate was lower for canine teeth than for maxillary fourth premolar teeth. Roots with a preexisting periapical lucency or preexisting root resorption had lower success rates. The use of intracanal medication and the method and quality of obturation were not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that root canal treatment offers a viable option for salvage of periodontally sound but endodontically diseased teeth in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:775–780)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine which dog breeds are at low and high risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM).

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—Hospital population of 221 dogs with DM and 42,882 dogs without DM during 5.5 years.

Procedure—165 breeds (including a mixed-breed category) were represented in the hospital population. Breed-specific expected numbers of dogs with DM were calculated by multiplying the proportion of all dogs admitted to the hospital that were determined to have DM during the study period by the breed-specific totals during the study period. Breeds or breed groups evaluated in the analysis (n = 20) were restricted to those that had a combined observed and expected count > 5 to document breeds at low and high risk for developing DM. Proportionate changes in the risk of developing DM by breed were calculated and presented using exact odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values. Mixed-breed dogs were chosen as the reference breed.

Results—Samoyeds, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature Poodles, Pugs, and Toy Poodles were at high risk for developing DM. Dog breeds found to be at low risk for developing DM were German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, and American Pit Bull Terrier.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The finding that certain dog breeds are at low or high risk for developing DM suggests that some genetic defects may predispose dogs to development of DM, whereas other genetic factors may protect dogs from development of DM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: 1414–1417)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether a synthetic feline facial pheromone product would decrease stress scores and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) incidence in shelter-housed cats.

DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.

ANIMALS 336 stray, feral, owner-relinquished, or legally impounded cats at 2 animal shelters in northern California.

PROCEDURES 5 cat holding rooms (3 at shelter A and 2 at shelter B) were used. A diffuser containing either synthetic pheromone or placebo was randomly assigned to each room, and cats were exposed for a 21-day period. Data collected on each cat included signalment, daily stress scores, and daily URI incidence. After 21 days, diffusers were removed for a 7-day washout period. The type of diffuser in each room was switched, and data were collected for another 21 days. Findings were statistically compared between exposure types and other groupings.

RESULTS Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed no significant difference between exposure (pheromone or placebo) and URI incidence. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression revealed no significant relationship between exposure and daily stress scores. Three covariates had significant ORs: number of days in holding (OR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.84), owner-relinquished versus stray (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 8.94), and feral versus adult cat room at shelter A (OR, 11.10; 95% CI, 4.47 to 27.60).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE No evidence was found that the evaluated synthetic feline facial pheromone product had any effect on stress scores or URI incidence in shelter-housed cats. Therefore, other established methods for stress and URI reduction should be used in shelter settings.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine usefulness of the test for proteins induced by vitamin K absence or antagonism (PIVKA) to identify anticoagulant-poisoned dogs, compared with one-stage prothrombin time (OSPT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—325 dogs.

Procedure—Comparisons of results of PIVKA, OSPT, and APTT measurements in dogs with anticoagulant poisoning, hepatic disease, disseminated intravascular coagulation, other blood-related disorders, immune-mediated diseases, or other chronic and acute diseases were performed. Median, quartile, and range values were determined.

Results—PIVKA tests with a 150-second critical value had > 98% specificity and > 90% sensitivity for diagnosis of anticoagulant poisoning versus > 99% specificity and > 79% sensitivity with a 300-second critical value. Comparison of PIVKA values among diagnostic groups revealed significant differences between dogs with anticoagulant poisoning and all other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PIVKA test with a 150-second critical value is diagnostically useful for distinguishing anticoagulant poisoning from other coagulopathies. Severe liver disease can cause false-positive results. Administration of vitamin K1 or early evaluation (within a few hours of ingesting anticoagulant) may cause false-negative results. Dogs with PIVKA test values > 150 seconds and clinical signs of anticoagulant poisoning can confidently be considered to have anticoagulant poisoning because of the high test sensitivity and specificity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:194–198)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentration measurement after administration of ACTH for use in the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—110 dogs.

Procedure—Serum 17-OHP concentrations were measured before and after ACTH stimulation in 53 healthy dogs to establish reference values for this study. Affected dogs had pituitary-dependent (n = 40) or adrenal tumor–associated (12) hyperadrenocorticism or potentially had atypical hyperadrenocorticism (5; diagnosis confirmed in 1 dog). In affected dogs, frequency interval and borderline and abnormal serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation were determined. Serum cortisol concentrations were assessed via low-dose dexamethasone suppression and ACTH stimulation tests.

Results—In healthy dogs, serum 17-OHP concentration frequency intervals were grouped by sex and reproductive status (defined as < 95th percentile). Frequency intervals of serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation were < 7.7, < 2.0, < 3.2, and < 3.4 ng/mL (< 23.3, < 6.1, < 9.7, and < 10.3 nmol/L) for sexually intact and neutered females and sexually intact and neutered males, respectively. In 53 dogs with confirmed hyperadrenocorticism, serum cortisol concentrations after ACTH stimulation and 8 hours after administration of dexamethasone and serum 17- OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation were considered borderline or abnormal in 79%, 93%, and 69% of dogs, respectively. Two of 5 dogs considered to have atypical hyperadrenocorticism had abnormal serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum 17-OHP concentration measurement after ACTH stimulation may be useful in the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs when other test results are equivocal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1095–1101)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) after IV administration of 3 doses of atropine to clinically normal, large-breed adult dogs.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs, weighing between 23 and 50 kg.

Procedure

Continuous ECG were recorded prior to and following IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg of atropine/kg of body weight. Heart rate and HRV within sympathetic and parasympathetic domains were determined, using customized software, and responses to treatments were compared. Each dog received all treatments with ≥ 2 days between treatments.

Results

HR increased and HRV within the parasympathetic domain decreased after all atropine treatments, compared with pretreatment values. Heart rate was significantly higher after administration of 0.06 mg of atropine/kg than after 0.02 mg/kg but was not different from HR after administration of 0.04 mg/kg. Five of 6 dogs given the 0.04 or 0.06 mg/kg dose attained HR > 135 beats/min, but only 1 of 6 dogs given the 0.02 mg/kg dose attained a HR > 135 beats/min. Heart rate variability within the parasympathetic domain decreased significantly from pretreatment values after all atropine treatments. Atropine doses of 0.04 and 0.06 mg/kg induced significantly lower HRV than did the 0.02 mg/kg dose, but HRV after the higher doses were not different from each other. HRV within the sympathetic domain after any treatment did not change from pretreatment values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

IV administration of 0.04 or 0.06 mg of atropine/kg increased HR and induced complete parasympathetic blockade in clinically normal, large-breed adult dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1000-1003)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To develop a prototype program for surveillance of causes of death of dogs, using resources developed for the World Wide Web, to enable collection of data from veterinarians in small animal practice and dissemination of results in a timely manner at minimal expense.

Design

Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population

Small animal veterinarians who were members of NOAH, Veterinary Information Network (VIN), or VetPlus-L.

Procedure

Internet electronic communications and Web pages were used for solicitation and collection of data, dissemination of results, and follow-up discussions with participants. Data were stored in a relational database.

Results

25 veterinarians actively submitted case material. On the basis of analysis by region and school of veterinary medicine attended, these veterinarians were representative of all small animal practitioners in the United States. During the 6-month study, 621 case reports were submitted. Analysis of results included determination of number of dogs, with proportions calculated for primary reason for death, primary clinical sign, and breed, as well as creation of a map depicting distribution of the practitioners. Additional data were obtained for analysis to provide information of interest.

Clinical Implications

A national database representative of dogs examined by small animal practitioners would be a valuable source of information. Rapidly and easily accessible return of information and results is important for any surveillance system. The program described here appears to be a successful method for collecting data from practitioners. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:251-256)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine prevalence and severity of systemic arterial hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with naturally developing diabetes mellitus (DM) and to determine whether these abnormalities were related to age, sex, duration of DM, or degree of control of glycemia.

Design—

Case series and cohort study.

Animals—

Fifty dogs with naturally developing DM.

Procedures—

Blood pressure was measured in all 50 dogs. Thirty-eight dogs were evaluated once, and 12 were evaluated sequentially. Thirty-five were evaluated for proteinuria by determining protein-to-creatinine ratio in urine (n = 35) or by electrophoresis of urine (33).

Results—

Hypertension was detected in 23 on the basis of a systolic pressure > 160 mm HG (12 dogs), a diastolic pressure > 100 mm HG (21), or a mean pressure > 120 mm HG (23). All dogs with systolic hypertension had concurrent diastolic and mean hypertension, and 19 of 21 dogs with diastolic hypertension had concurrent high mean pressure. Ten of 12 dogs reevaluated at subsequent visits had no change in blood pressure. Blood pressure remained consistent in 3 dogs tested at different times during the day on a single visit. Duration of DM and presence of proteinuria were significant predictors of hypertension. Seven of 35 (20%) dogs had an increased protein-to-creatinine ratio in their urine. Albumin concentration and albumin-to-creatinine ratio were significantly higher in urine from diabetic dogs, compared with healthy, nondiabetic dogs. Hypertension was associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

Clinical Implications—

Systemic hypertension and proteinuria may be common in diabetic dogs, but the clinical importance of these findings are, as yet, unknown. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:822-825)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine, among dogs with urolithiasis, whether dogs that had hyperadrenocorticism would be more likely to have calcium-containing uroliths than would dogs that did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocorticism.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Animals

20 dogs that had urolithiasis and hyperadrenocorticism and 42 breed-matched dogs that had urolithiasis but did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocortiosm.

Procedure

Signalment, urolith composition, results of bacterial culture of urine, and results of adrenal axis tests were recorded. A multivariate logistic regression model was created, including terms for age, sex, and hyperadrenocorticism. The outcome variable was presence or absence of calcium-containing uroliths.

Results

Among dogs with urolithiasis, those that had hyperadrenocorticism were 10 times as likely to have calcium-containing uroliths as were dogs that did not have clinical evidence of hyperadrenocorticism (odds ratio, 10.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 23.4) Neutered and sexually intact females were less likely to have calcium-containing uroliths than were neutered males (odds ratios, 0.041 [95% confidence interval, 0.0057 to 0.29] and 0.024 [95% confidence interval, 0.0012 to 0.5], respectively).

Clinical Implications

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of hyperadrenocorticism may decrease prevalence of calcium-containing uroliths in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:212:1889–1891)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine the prevalence of hypergastrinemia in cats with naturally developing chronic renal failure (CRF) and the correlation between gastrin concentration in plasma and severity of CRF.

Design—

Cohort study.

Animals—

30 cats with naturally developing CRF and 12 clinically normal control cats.

Procedure—

Gastrin concentrations in plasma were determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from cats after food was withheld 8 hours. Concentrations were compared, using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA.

Results—

18 cats with CRF had high gastrin concentrations (median, 45 pg/ml; range, < 18 to > 1,333 pg/ml), compared with those for control cats (< 18 pg/ml). Prevalence of hypergastrinemia increased with severity of renal insufficiency. Three of 9 cats with mild CRF, 6 of 11 cats with moderate CRF, and 9 of 10 cats with severe CRF had high gastrin concentrations. Gastrin concentrations were significantly different between control cats and cats with CRF, regardless of disease severity.

Clinical Implications—

The potential role of high concentrations of gastrin on gastric hyperacidity, uremic gastritis, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, and associated clinical signs of hypergastrinemia (eg, anorexia and vomiting) may justify use of histamine2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors to suppress gastric acid secretion in cats with CRF that have these clinical signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:826-828)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association