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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the concentrations of airborne virulent Rhodococcus equi in stalls housing foals during the first 2 weeks after birth are associated with subsequent development of R equi pneumonia in those foals.

Sample—Air samples collected from foaling stalls and holding pens in which foals were housed during the first 2 weeks after birth.

Procedures—At a breeding farm in Texas, air samples (500 L each) were collected (January through May 2011) from stalls and pens in which 121 foals were housed on day 1 and on days 4, 7, and 14 after birth. For each sample, the concentration of airborne virulent R equi was determined with an immunoblot technique. The association between development of pneumonia and airborne R equi concentration was evaluated via random-effects Poisson regression analysis.

Results—Some air samples were not available for analysis. Of the 471 air samples collected from stalls that housed 121 foals, 90 (19%) contained virulent R equi. Twenty-four of 121 (20%) foals developed R equi pneumonia. Concentrations of virulent R equi in air samples from stalls housing foals that developed R equi pneumonia were significantly higher than those in samples from stalls housing foals that did not develop pneumonia. Accounting for disease effects, air sample concentrations of virulent R equi did not differ significantly by day after birth or by month of birth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure of foals to airborne virulent R equi during the first 2 weeks after birth was significantly (and likely causally) associated with development of R equi pneumonia.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare bony changes of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) of Thoroughbred racehorse cadavers with (cases) or without (controls) catastrophic condylar fracture by use of standing MRI.

SAMPLE 140 forelimbs from 26 case horses (both forelimbs) and 88 control horses (single forelimb).

PROCEDURES Bone marrow lesions (BMLs), identified as a decrease in T1-weighted (T1W) signal and increases in T2*-weighted (T2*W) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) signals, and dense bone volume percentage (DBVP), identified as decreases in T1W, T2*W, and STIR signals, in the distopalmar aspect of MC3 were recorded. Logistic regression was used to compare fractured and nonfractured limbs of cases and fractured limbs of cases with randomly selected limbs of controls.

RESULTS Among cases, fractured limbs were significantly more likely to have BMLs (26/26 [100%]) than were nonfractured limbs (7/26 [27%]). Fractured limbs of cases were significantly more likely to have BMLs (26/26 [100%]) than were limbs of controls (6/88 [7%]). Among cases, there was no significant difference in DBVP between fractured and nonfractured limbs in lateral (26% vs 21%, respectively) or medial (25% vs 20%, respectively) condyles. However, DBVP was significantly greater in fractured limbs of cases than in limbs of controls for lateral (26% vs 16%, respectively) and medial (25% vs 18%, respectively) condyles.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Standing MRI revealed a significantly greater degree of bone change in racehorses with condylar fracture when comparing fractured and nonfractured limbs of case horses and fractured limbs of case horses with randomly selected limbs of control horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of oral omeprazole administration on the fecal and gastric microbiota of healthy adult horses.

ANIMALS 12 healthy adult research horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to receive omeprazole paste (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or a sham (control) treatment (tap water [20 mL, PO, q 24 h]) for 28 days. Fecal and gastric fluid samples were collected prior to the first treatment (day 0), and on days 7, 28, 35, and 56. Sample DNA was extracted, and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified and sequenced to characterize α and β diversity and differential expression of the fecal and gastric microbiota. Data were analyzed by visual examination and by statistical methods.

RESULTS Composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota did not differ significantly between treatment groups or over time. Substantial variation in gastric fluid results within groups and over time precluded meaningful interpretation of the microbiota in those samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported that omeprazole administration had no effect on fecal microbiota composition and diversity in this group of healthy adult horses. Small sample size limited power to detect a difference if one existed; however, qualitative graphic examination supported that any difference would likely have been small and of limited clinical importance. Adequate data to evaluate potential effects on the gastric microbiota were not obtained. Investigations are needed to determine the effects of omeprazole in horses with systemic disease or horses receiving other medical treatments.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of treatment with platelet- and leukocyte-rich plasma (PRP) on future 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old racing performance of yearling Thoroughbreds with proximal sesamoid bone inflammation and associated suspensory ligament branch (SLB) desmitis.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—39 yearling Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—Yearling Thoroughbreds with radiographic evidence of performance-limiting proximal sesamoid bone inflammation and ultrasonographic evidence of associated SLB desmitis were identified and randomly assigned to undergo PRP (treatment group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group) injection at the affected SLB-proximal sesamoid bone junction. Race records of horses for the 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old racing years were obtained. Data regarding amount of money earned and number of races started were used as outcome measures, and results for groups were compared.

Results—Horses treated with PRP were significantly more likely to start at least 1 race during the 2-year-old racing year than were horses treated with saline solution; no significant differences were detected between groups regarding that variable for the 3- and 4-year-old racing years. No significant differences between groups were detected regarding earnings for any racing year.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although PRP-treated horses were more likely to start a race during the 2-year-old racing year versus control group horses, results for horses in each group were not significantly different for the 3- and 4-year-old racing years. Therefore, the PRP treatment protocol evaluated in this study did not seem to improve future racing performance of yearling Thoroughbreds with proximal sesamoid bone inflammation and associated SLB desmitis, compared with injection of saline solution.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the chief complaints by owners and the types and prevalences of musculoskeletal problems associated with lameness or poor performance in cutting horses.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 200 client-owned cutting horses examined at the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, because of lameness or poor performance.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed, and data were collected regarding signalment, history, findings on physical and lameness examinations, results of diagnostic procedures performed, diagnosis, and treatment. Distribution of observed proportions of forelimb and hind limb involvement was compared with a hypothetical distribution of 50% by means of a χ2 test.

RESULTS More horses were examined because of a recent decrease in performance (116/200 [58%]) than for lameness (84 [42%]). All horses had at least 1 lame limb, with lameness affecting a total of 281 limbs. Of the 281 lame limbs, 189 (67%) were hind limbs and 92 (33%) were forelimbs. These proportions were substantially different from a hypothetical distribution of 50% hind limbs and 50% forelimbs. The most common performance change was that horses would not reverse direction to follow prespecified individual cattle, and the most common cause of lameness was pain localized to the stifle joint region (69 [35%]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cutting horses sustained more hind limb than forelimb musculoskeletal problems, and although these horses were more likely to be examined for decreased performance than lameness, veterinarians should be vigilant for problems affecting the stifle joint region.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare soil concentrations of macrolide- and rifampicin-resistant Rhodococcus equi strains (MRRE) on horse-breeding farms that used thoracic ultrasonographic screening (TUS) to identify foals with subclinical pneumonia combined with subsequent administration of macrolides and rifampin to affected foals (TUS farms) versus soil concentrations on farms that did not (non-TUS farms), determine whether the combined use of TUS and antimicrobial treatment of subclinically affected foals was associated with soil concentration of MRRE, and assess whether there were temporal effects on soil concentrations of MRRE during the foaling season.

SAMPLES

720 soil samples and 20 completed questionnaires from 20 horse-breeding farms (10 TUS farms and 10 non-TUS farms) in central Kentucky.

PROCEDURES

A questionnaire was used to gather information from participating farms about their 2019 foaling season. Soil samples were collected during January, March, May, and July 2019 for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to identify any isolates of MRRE. Results were compared for TUS farms versus non-TUS farms. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to evaluate for potential associations between the soil concentration of MRRE and the use of TUS.

RESULTS

Overall, the sum of the mean soil concentrations of MRRE was significantly higher for TUS farms (8.85 log10-transformed CFUs/g) versus non-TUS farms (7.37 log10-transformed CFUs/g).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicated that farms that use TUS to identify foals with subclinical pneumonia for antimicrobial treatment select for antimicrobial-resistant R equi strains. Because prognosis is worse for foals infected with resistant versus nonresistant strains of R equi, prudent use of antimicrobials to treat foals with subclinical pulmonary lesions attributed to R equi is recommended.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of 2 acute-phase proteins (serum amyloid A [SAA] and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein [LBP]) in serum samples obtained from horses with colic and identify relationships among these acute-phase proteins and clinical data.

Animals—765 horses with naturally developing gastrointestinal tract diseases characterized by colic (ie, clinical signs indicative of abdominal pain) and 79 healthy control horses; all horses were examined at 2 university teaching hospitals.

Procedure—Serum concentrations of SAA and LBP were determined by immunoturbidometric and dotblot assays, respectively.

Results—SAA and LBP concentrations were determined for 718 and 765 horses with colic, respectively. Concentrations of SAA were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors, and horses with enteritis or colitis and conditions characterized by chronic inflammation (eg, abdominal abscesses, peritonitis, or rectal tears) had SAA concentrations significantly greater than those for horses with other conditions. Serum concentrations of LBP did not correlate with outcome, disease process, or portion of the gastrointestinal tract affected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Circulating concentrations of SAA were significantly higher at admission in horses with colic attributable to conditions having a primary inflammatory cause (eg, enteritis, colitis, peritonitis, or abdominal abscesses) and were higher in horses that failed to survive the episode of colic, compared with concentrations in horses that survived. Serum concentrations of LBP did not correlate with survival. Analysis of these findings suggests that evaluation of SAA concentrations may be of use in identifying horses with colic attributable to diseases that have inflammation as a primary component of pathogenesis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1509–1516)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate spatial risks associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) during 2001 among horses in a specific study population and partition the herd effects into those attributable to herd location and those that were spatially random and likely attributable to herd management.

Animals—Pregnant broodmares from 62 farms in 7 counties in central Kentucky.

Procedure—Veterinarians provided the 2001 abortion incidence proportions for each farm included in the study. Farms were georeferenced and data were analyzed by use of a fully Bayesian risk-mapping technique.

Results—Large farm-to-farm variation in MRLS incidence proportions was identified. The farm-to-farm variation was largely attributed to spatial location rather than to spatially random herd effects

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that there are considerable data to support an ecologic cause and potential ecologic risk factors for MRLS. Veterinary practitioners with more detailed knowledge of the ecology in the 7 counties in Kentucky that were investigated may provide additional data that would assist in the deduction of the causal factor of MRLS via informal geographic information systems analyses and suggest factors for inclusion in further investigations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:17–20)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the temporality of dates of breeding and abortion classified as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS) among mares with abortions during early gestation.

Animals—2,314 mares confirmed pregnant at approximately 28 days after breeding from 36 farms in central Kentucky, including 515 mares that had earlyterm abortions.

Procedure—Farm veterinarians and managers were interviewed to obtain data for each mare that was known to be pregnant to determine pregnancy status, breeding date, last date known to be pregnant, and date of abortion.

Results—Mares bred prior to April 1, 2001, appeared to be at greatest risk of early-term abortion, both among and within individual farms. Mares bred in mid-February appeared to be at greatest risk of abortion, with an estimated weekly incidence rate of abortion of 66% (95% CI, 52% to 80%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mares in central Kentucky bred between mid-February and early March were observed to be at greatest risk of early-term abortion, and risk gradually decreased to a background incidence of abortion of approximately 11%. Mares bred after April 1, 2001, appeared to be at markedly less risk, indicating that exposure to the cause of MRLS likely occurred prior to this date. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1792–1797)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate (GaM) after intragastric administration in healthy foals.

Animals—6 healthy neonatal foals.

Procedures—Each foal received GaM (20 mg/kg) by intragastric administration. Blood samples were obtained before (time 0) and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after GaM administration for determination of serum gallium concentrations by use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy.

Results—Mean ± SD pharmacokinetic variables were as follows: peak serum gallium concentration, 1,079 ± 311 ng/mL; time to peak serum concentration, 4.3 ± 2.0 hours; area under the serum concentration versus time curve, 40,215 ± 8,420 ng/mL/h; mean residence time, 39.5 ± 17.2 hours; area under the moment curve, 1,636,554 ± 931,458 ng([h]2/mL); and terminal half-life, 26.6 ± 11.6 hours. The mean serum concentration of gallium at 12 hours was 756 ± 195 ng/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gallium maltolate administered via nasogastric tube at a dose of 20 mg/kg to neonatal foals resulted in gallium serum concentrations considered sufficient to suppress growth or kill Rhodococcus equi in macrophages and other infected tissues.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research