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Abstract

Case Description—2 castrated male Labrador Retrievers (dogs 1 and 2) were evaluated 3 to 4 years after placement of a permanent pacemaker. Dog 1 was evaluated because of a large volume of chylous pleural effusion. Dog 2 was admitted for elective replacement of a pacemaker.

Clinical Findings—Dog 1 had mild facial swelling and a rapidly recurring pleural effusion. Previously detected third-degree atrioventricular block had resolved. Cranial vena cava (CVC) syndrome secondary to pacemaker-induced thrombosis and stricture of the CVC was diagnosed on the basis of results of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and venous angiography. Dog 2 had persistent third-degree atrioventricular block. Intraluminal caval stricture and thrombosis were diagnosed at the time of pacemaker replacement. Radiographic evidence of pleural effusion consistent with CVC syndrome also was detected at that time.

Treatment and Outcome—Dog 1 improved after treatment with unfractionated heparin and a local infusion of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator. Balloon venoplasty was performed subsequently to relieve the persistent caval stricture. In dog 2, balloon dilatation of the caval stricture was necessary to allow for placement of a new pacing lead. Long-term anticoagulant treatment was initiated in both dogs. Long-term (> 6 months) resolution of clinical signs was achieved in both dogs.

Clinical Relevance—Thrombosis and stricture of the CVC are possible complications of a permanent pacemaker in dogs. Findings suggested that balloon venoplasty and anticoagulation administration with or without thrombolytic treatment can be effective in the treatment of dogs with pacemaker-induced CVC syndrome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe a population of dogs with vehicular trauma and to determine whether age, type and severity of injury, or preexisting disease were associated with outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—239 dogs evaluated at a university referral hospital after vehicular trauma over a 12-month period.

Procedures—Patient characteristics, including age, outcome, animal trauma triage (ATT) score, treatments performed, hospital stay, cost, and preexisting disease, were recorded from medical records of dogs that had vehicular trauma. Dogs were assigned to a young, middle-aged, or geriatric age group. Categoric and continuous variables were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors to identify possible associations.

Results—239 dogs (126 males and 113 females) were evaluated following vehicular trauma during 2001: young (n = 149), middle-aged (68), and geriatric (22). The median ATT score was 3 (range, 0 to 15). Sixteen dogs had preexisting disease. Hospital stay ranged from < 1 to 28 days (median, 3 days). Cost ranged from $77 to $10,636 (median, $853). Two hundred six dogs were discharged. Twenty-six dogs were euthanatized, and 7 died. Dogs that died or were euthanatized had significantly higher ATT scores. The ATT score also was associated with a significantly higher cost of care. Dogs with multiple injuries had significantly higher ATT scores, had increased cost of care, and were significantly more likely to die or be euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased injury severity in dogs was associated with increased mortality rates and higher cost of treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether games of popular professional football teams have an effect on small animal emergency room caseload and percentage of dogs and cats that subsequently are hospitalized, are euthanatized, or die following admission to veterinary emergency rooms located within a dedicated fan base.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—818 dogs and cats admitted to the emergency room.

Procedures—During the 2007 New England Patriots (NEP) football season, small animal emergency room caseload was recorded for Sunday (4-hour blocks, 8:00 AM until 12:00 midnight) and Monday night (7:00 PM to 11:00 PM). Number of dogs and cats that subsequently were hospitalized, died, or were euthanatized was recorded. Mean game importance rating (GIR) was determined for NEP games (scale, 1 [mild] to 3 [great]).

Results—Percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 12:00 noon to 4:00 PM on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 1.7) versus non-NEP games was not different. Mean ± SD percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 4:00 PM to 8:00 PM on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 2.4) versus non-NEP games was significantly different (18 ± 5% and 25 ± 7% of daily caseload, respectively). Percentage of dogs and cats admitted from 8:00 PM to 12:00 midnight on Sundays during NEP games (mean GIR, 2.1) versus non-NEP games was not different. Game type (NEP vs non-NEP) during emergency room admission did not influence whether dogs and cats subsequently were hospitalized, died, or were euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Professional sporting events may influence veterinary emergency room caseloads.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic (NT-proBNP) concentration could be used to identify cardiac disease in dogs and to assess disease severity in affected dogs.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—119 dogs with mitral valve disease, 18 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—Serum NT-proBNP concentration was measured with an ELISA validated for use in dogs. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and serum biochemical analyses were recorded for dogs with cardiac disease.

Results—Serum NT-proBNP concentration was significantly higher in dogs with cardiac disease than in control dogs, and a serum NT-proBNP concentration > 445 pmol/L could be used to discriminate dogs with cardiac disease from control dogs with a sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 90.0%. In dogs with cardiac disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration was correlated with heart rate, respiratory rate, echocardiographic heart size, and renal function. For dogs with cardiac disease, serum NT-proBNP concentration could be used to discriminate dogs with and without radiographic evidence of cardiomegaly and dogs with and without congestive heart failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that serum NT-proBNP concentration may be a useful adjunct clinical test for diagnosing cardiac disease in dogs and assessing the severity of disease in dogs with cardiac disease.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Milk antimicrobial residues are a serious concern for the dairy industry. Residues of the tetracycline family of antimicrobials have been reported in market milk by investigators, using radioimmunoassay and microbial receptor technology (hereafter referred to as the Charm II test). In response to these reports, an investigation was conducted to determine the potential of 3 extra-label routes of oxytetracycline (otc) administration to cause milk residues above the Food and Drug Administration safe value of 30 parts per billion (ppb). Lactating Holstein cows were administered otc once by use of 1 of 3 routes: iv at 16.5 mg/kg of body weight (n = 6); im at 11 mg/kg (n = 6); and intrauterine (iu) at 2 g in 500 ml of saline solution/cow (n = 6). Duplicate milk samples were collected at the milking prior to drug administration and for the next 13 milkings at 12-hour intervals. Concentrations of otc in milk samples were analyzed by use of the Charm II test for tetracyclines (lmit of otc detection, approx 5 ppb) and were compared with concentrations determined by use of a high-performance lquid chromatography (hplc) method (lower lmit of otc quantitation, approx 2 ppb).

The potential for milk otc residues above the Food and Drug Administration safe value of 30 ppb after treatment was considerably greater for the iv and im routes, compared with the iu route. Mean peak otc concentrations in milk at the first milking after treatment for the hplc and Charm II tests were approximately 3,700 to 4,200 ppb for the iv route, 2,200 to 2,600 ppb for the im route, and 186 to 192 ppb for the iu route, respectively.

Pharmacokinetic analysis, based on milk otc concentrations, indicated that the area under the curve (auc) and milk maximal concentration (Cmax) differed significantly (P < 0.001) among routes of administration. The auc was similar for iv and im administrations; values for both were greater than the auc for iu administration. The Cmax was greatest for iv, intermediate for im, and least for iu administration. There were significant (P ≤ 0.01) differences in auc between assay methods (Charm II vs hplc) for the iv route. Concentrations of otc in milk determined by the Charm II test were often greater than those determined by hplc.

Administration of otc to lactating cows via these routes is extra-label drug use. Failure to withhold the product from early milkings of cows administered otc by the iv or im route should be considered a potential cause of otc residues in market milk. Milk from nearly all cows contained otc (< 30 ppb), the Food and Drug Administration safe level, by 120 hours after otc administration. Use of appropriate withholding times and antibiotic residue testing is indicated to avoid otc residues.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

A microbial receptor assay method (MRAM; Charm II test) for β-lactam antibiotics and a liquid chromatography (LC) method with a detection limit of 2 to 5 ppb were evaluated for detection of ampicillin or amoxicillin residues in milk samples from individuell cows.

Design

The MRAM was compared to the LC in 2 respects. Measured concentrations of drugs were compared, as well as the classification of samples relative to the FDA tolerance value of 10 ppb.

Animals

A total of 6 clinically normal lactating Holstein cows were used per drug.

Procedure

Ampicillin trihydrate or amoxicillin trihydrate was administered at an extra-label dosage of 22 mg/kg of body weight, IM, once to each of 6 cows/drug. Milk samples were collected at milkings prior to and for 156 hours after drug administration. Drug concentrations in milk samples from individual cows were determined by use of the MRAM and LC tests. Additionally, the classification of milk samples relative to the presence or absence of residues above the FDA tolerance value was determined. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on derived milk drug concentrations.

Results

Concentration of ampicillin in milk samples from all cows was < 10 ppb by the MRAM and LC methods by the fourth milking (48 hours) after treatment with ampicillin. Values were < 10 ppb by both methods for all cows treated with amoxicillin by the sixth milking (72 hours) after treatment. For individual milk samples, significant differences were found between test methods in the proportion of positive (failing) tests; the MRAM had a higher proportion of presumptive positives.

Conclusions

Even at an extra-label dosage of 22 mg/kg, IM, milk residues > 10 ppb (the FDA tolerance value) were not detected beyond the label milk withholding times for ampicillin (48 hours) and amoxicillin (96 hours). When used for testing milk of individual cows by the control point procedure, the MRAM had a tendency to give presumptive positive test results for milk samples containing < 10 ppb ampicillin or amoxicillin as determined by LC. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:73-78)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop, validate, and evaluate a questionnaire (Cats’ Assessment Tool for Cardiac Health [CATCH] questionnaire) for assessing health-related quality of life in cats with cardiac disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—275 cats with cardiac disease.

Procedures—The questionnaire was developed on the basis of clinical signs of cardiac disease in cats. A CATCH score was calculated by summing responses to questionnaire items; possible scores ranged from 0 to 80. For questionnaire validation, owners of 75 cats were asked to complete the questionnaire (10 owners completed the questionnaire twice). Disease severity was assessed with the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) classification for cardiac disease. Following validation, the final questionnaire was administered to owners of the remaining 200 cats.

Results—Internal consistency of the questionnaire was good, and the CATCH score was significantly correlated with ISACHC classification. For owners that completed the questionnaire twice, scores were significantly correlated. During the second phase of the study, the CATCH score ranged from 0 to 74 (median, 7) and was significantly correlated with ISACHC classification.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the CATCH questionnaire is a valid and reliable method for assessing health-related quality of life in cats with cardiac disease. Further research is warranted to test the tool's sensitivity to changes in medical treatment and its potential role as a clinical and research tool.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association