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  • Author or Editor: Jörg M. Steiner x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) gene for variants and to determine their possible association with pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers.

Animals—39 Miniature Schnauzers with pancreatitis, 25 healthy Miniature Schnauzers, and 23 healthy dogs of other breeds.

Procedures—The entire canine SPINK1 gene with its intron-exon boundaries was initially sequenced in 22 Miniature Schnauzers. Then, 2 regions of the gene were sequenced in 65 additional canine DNA samples at the locations of variants identified in the initial sequencing of the entire SPINK1 gene.

Results—Analysis of the SPINK1 gene in Miniature Schnauzers revealed 3 closely associated variants in healthy Miniature Schnauzers and Miniature Schnauzers with pancreatitis. These variants consisted of 2 missense mutations in the second exon (N20K and N25T) and a poly T insertion in the third intron that was near the boundary of exon 3 (IVS3+26–27ins(T)33–39,15_61dup11). Pancreatitis was significantly associated with homozygous alleles for these 3 variants in Miniature Schnauzers. In healthy dogs of other breeds, only the 2 exon variants were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Variants of the SPINK1 gene may be associated with the development of pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To analytically validate a gas concentration of chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for measurement of 6 amino acids in canine serum samples and to assess the stability of each amino acid after sample storage.

SAMPLES Surplus serum from 80 canine samples submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University and serum samples from 12 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES GC-MS was validated to determine precision, reproducibility, limit of detection, and percentage recovery of known added concentrations of 6 amino acids in surplus serum samples. Amino acid concentrations in serum samples from healthy dogs were measured before (baseline) and after storage in various conditions.

RESULTS Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation (10 replicates involving 12 pooled serum samples) were 13.4% and 16.6% for glycine, 9.3% and 12.4% for glutamic acid, 5.1% and 6.3% for methionine, 14.0% and 15.1% for tryptophan, 6.2% and 11.0% for tyrosine, and 7.4% and 12.4% for lysine, respectively. Observed-to-expected concentration ratios in dilutional parallelism tests (6 replicates involving 6 pooled serum samples) were 79.5% to 111.5% for glycine, 80.9% to 123.0% for glutamic acid, 77.8% to 111.0% for methionine, 85.2% to 98.0% for tryptophan, 79.4% to 115.0% for tyrosine, and 79.4% to 110.0% for lysine. No amino acid concentration changed significantly from baseline after serum sample storage at −80°C for ≤ 7 days.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE GC-MS measurement of concentration of 6 amino acids in canine serum samples yielded precise, accurate, and reproducible results. Sample storage at −80°C for 1 week had no effect on GC-MS results.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-dTXB2) in urine of healthy control dogs, dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy, and dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) and assess the relationship between urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations in dogs with GDV and postoperative outcomes.

Sample Population—Urine samples from 15 nonsurgical control dogs, 12 surgical control dogs, and 32 dogs with GVD.

Procedure—Urine samples were obtained from healthy pet dogs (ie, nonsurgical control dogs), dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy at anesthetic induction and 1 hour following surgery (ie, surgical control dogs), and dogs with GDV at hospital admission and 1 hour following surgical derotation of the stomach (ie, GDV dogs). Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentrations were determined with an ELISA and normalized to urinary creatinine (Cr) concentrations by calculation of the 11-dTXB2 -to-Cr ratio. Differences in median 11-dTXB2 -to-Cr ratios among dogs and before and after surgery were analyzed.

Results—Urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios did not differ between nonsurgical control dogs and surgical control dogs before or after surgery. Urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios were significantly higher in GDV dogs at the time of hospital admission and 1 hour after surgery, compared with those of nonsurgical control dogs. Postoperative urine samples from GDV dogs had significantly higher 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios than postoperative urine samples from surgical control dogs. Median urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratios increased significantly in GDV dogs that developed postoperative complications.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary 11-dTXB2 concentration is increased in GDV dogs at the time of hospital admission and after surgical derotation of the stomach, compared with that of healthy dogs. An increased urinary 11-dTXB2-to-Cr ratio following surgery is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative complications in dogs with GDV.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine an optimal dose of carbon 13 (13C)-labeled aminopyrine for use in a 13C-aminopyrine demethylation blood test in healthy dogs.

Animals—9 adult dogs.

Procedures—Food was withheld from each dog for 12 hours. A 2-mL baseline blood sample was obtained from each dog and placed into an evacuated tube containing sodium heparin. Carbon 13-labeled aminopyrine was administered IV at doses of 1, 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg. Additional blood samples (2 mL) were obtained and placed into evacuated tubes containing sodium heparin 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine administration. Hydrochloric acid was used to extract CO2 from blood samples. The extracted gas was analyzed by fractional mass spectrometry to determine the percentage dose of 13C administered as 13C-aminopyrine and recovered in extracted gas (PCD).

Results—Gross evidence of clinical adverse effects was not detected in any dog after administration of 13C-aminopyrine. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for PCD was significantly lower than the mean CV for the summation of PCD values up to a given sampling time (CUMPCD). Mean PCD values among the 4 doses for each sample time were not significantly different. Administration of 13C-aminopyrine at a dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in the lowest interindividual variability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PCD is superior to CUMPCD for the quantification of aminopyrine demethylation. Administration of 13C-13C-aminopyrine at a dose of 2 mg/kg is appropriate for use in the 13C-aminopyrine demethylation blood test in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the qualitative variation in bacterial microflora among compartments of the intestinal tract of dogs by use of a molecular fingerprinting technique.

Animals—14 dogs (similarly housed and fed identical diets).

Procedure—Samples of intestinal contents were collected from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum of each dog. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the samples, and the variable V6 to V8 region of 16S ribosomal DNA (gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA) was amplified by use of universal bacterial primers; polymerase chain reaction amplicons were separated via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Similarity indices of DGGE banding patterns were used to assess variation in the bacterial microflora among different compartments of the intestine within and among dogs. Bacterial diversity was assessed by calculating the Simpson diversity index, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, and evenness.

Results—DGGE profiles indicated marked differences in bacterial composition of intestinal compartments among dogs (range of similarity, 25.6% to 36.6%) and considerable variation among compartments within individual dogs (range of similarity, 36.7% to 57.9%). Similarities between neighboring intestinal compartments were significantly greater than those between non-neighboring compartments. Diversity indices for the colon and rectum were significantly higher than those of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the different intestinal compartments of individual dogs appear to host different bacterial populations, and these compartmental populations vary among dogs. In dogs, fecal sample analysis may not yield accurate information regarding the composition of bacterial populations in compartments of the gastrointestinal tract. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1556–1562)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—198 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis and 187 control dogs with a diagnosis of renal failure without clinical evidence of pancreatitis.

Procedures—Information on signalment, weight, body condition, dietary intake, medical history, diagnostic tests performed, concurrent diseases, treatments, duration of hospitalization, and discharge status was extracted from medical records. Information on dietary intake, signalment, weight, and medical, surgical, and environmental history was collected through a telephone questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals.

Results—On the basis of information extracted from the medical record, ingesting unusual food items (OR, 4.3) increased the odds of pancreatitis. On the basis of information gathered through the telephone questionnaire, ingesting unusual food items (OR, 6.1), ingesting table scraps the week before diagnosis (OR, 2.2) or throughout life (OR, 2.2), and getting into the trash (OR, 13.2) increased the odds of pancreatitis. Multivariable modeling indicated that reporting exposure to ≥ 1 dietary factor during the telephone questionnaire (OR, 2.6), being overweight (OR, 1.3) or neutered (OR, 3.6), previous surgery other than neutering (OR, 21.1), and the interaction between neuter status and previous surgery other than neutering (OR, 0.1) were associated with the odds of pancreatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dietary factors, being neutered, and previous surgery other than neutering increased the odds of pancreatitis in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hypertriglyceridemia in Miniature Schnauzers is associated with insulin resistance.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—28 Miniature Schnauzers with hypertriglyceridemia and 31 Miniature Schnauzers for which serum triglyceride concentrations were within the reference range (control dogs).

Procedures—All dogs had no history of chronic disease, were free of clinical signs for at least 3 months prior to blood collection, and were not receiving any medications known to affect lipid metabolism or serum insulin concentration. Food was withheld from each dog for ≥ 12 hours; a 5- to 10-mL blood sample was collected and allowed to clot to obtain serum. Serum insulin and glucose concentrations were measured, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score was calculated (ie, [basal serum insulin concentration {mU/L} × basal serum glucose concentration {mmol/L}]/22.5).

Results—Median serum insulin concentration was significantly higher in hypertriglyceridemic Miniature Schnauzers (21.3 mU/L) than it was in control dogs (12.5 mU/L). The percentage of dogs with high serum insulin concentrations was significantly greater in the hypertriglyceridemic group (28.6%) than it was in the control group (6.5%; odds ratio, 5.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 30.2). Median HOMA score for hypertriglyceridemic Miniature Schnauzers (4.9) was significantly higher than that for control dogs (2.8).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that hypertriglyceridemia in Miniature Schnauzers is often associated with insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to determine the prevalence and clinical importance of insulin resistance in hypertriglyceridemic Miniature Schnauzers.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether hypertriglyceridemia in healthy Miniature Schnauzers is associated with high serum liver enzyme activities.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—65 Miniature Schnauzers with serum triglyceride concentrations within the reference range (group 1), 20 Miniature Schnauzers with slightly high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 2), and 20 Miniature Schnauzers with moderately to severely high serum triglyceride concentrations (group 3).

Procedures—Questionnaires regarding each dog's medical history were completed, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and G-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities were measured.

Results—Median serum ALP activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 or 2 dogs, but was not significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 dogs. Median serum ALT activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 dogs, but was not significantly different between any of the other groups. Compared with group 1 dogs, group 2 and 3 dogs were significantly more likely to have high serum ALP activity (odds ratio, 26.2 and 192.6, respectively). Group 3 dogs also were significantly more likely to have high serum ALT activity (odds ratio, 8.0), serum AST activity (odds ratio, 3.7), and serum GGT activity (odds ratio, 11.3), compared with group 1 dogs. Group 3 dogs were significantly more likely (odds ratio, 31.0) to have ≥ 2 high serum liver enzyme activities than were group 1 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia was associated with high serum liver enzyme activities in Miniature Schnauzers.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors significantly associated with prognosis in cats hospitalized because of pancreatitis.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—33 cats hospitalized for treatment of pancreatitis (diagnosis determined on the basis of clinical signs and serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity [fPLI] concentration ≥ 5.4 μg/L).

Procedures—Cats were hospitalized (day 1) for 2 to 16 days and observed for 44 days or until they died or were euthanized. Results of physical examination and hematologic and serum biochemical analysis, including measurement of serum fPLI concentration, performed on the day of hospital admission were analyzed to determine whether they were associated with outcome (ie, survival to at least 44 days vs death or euthanasia).

Results—On day 1, mean × SD serum fPLI concentration among the 33 cats was 22.0 × 16.4 μg/L. Mean age of the cats was 12.7 × 3.8 years (range, 4 to 19 years). Eleven of the 33 (33%) cats died or were euthanized before day 44. In univariate analyses, dyspnea, hypothermia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, and serum fPLI concentration were significantly associated with an adverse outcome. However, in a multivariate analysis, only severe dyspnea, hyperkalemia (potassium concentration > 5.5 mmol/L), and serum fPLI concentration at the time of hospital admission were found to be significantly associated with an adverse outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dyspnea, hyperkalemia, and serum fPLI concentration at the time of hospital admission were significant prognostic factors for cats hospitalized because of pancreatitis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of histologic abnormalities in cats suspected, on the basis of compatible clinical signs and ultrasonographic findings, to have chronic small bowel disease; identify the most common underlying causes in affected cats; and compare methods for differentiating among the various causes of chronic small bowel disease.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—300 client-owned domestic cats suspected to have chronic small bowel disease.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify cats evaluated because of chronic vomiting, chronic small bowel diarrhea, or weight loss that also had ultrasonographic evidence of thickening of the small intestine. Cats were included in the study if full-thickness biopsy specimens had been obtained from ≥ 3 locations of the small intestine by means of laparotomy and biopsy specimens had been examined by means of histologic evaluation and, when necessary to obtain a diagnosis, immunohistochemical analysis and a PCR assay for antigen receptor rearrangement.

Results—Chronic small bowel disease was diagnosed in 288 of the 300 (96%) cats. The most common diagnoses were chronic enteritis (n = 150) and intestinal lymphoma (124).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that a high percentage of cats with clinical signs of chronic small bowel disease and ultrasonographic evidence of thickening of the small intestine had histologic abnormalities. Furthermore, full-thickness biopsy specimens were useful in differentiating between intestinal lymphoma and chronic enteritis, but such differentiation was not possible with ultrasonography or clinicopathologic testing alone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association