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SUMMARY

The absorption kinetics of porcine regular insulin following iv, im, and sc administration were evaluated in 10 dogs with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Plasma immunoreactive insulin (iri) concentrations were evaluated immediately prior to and at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes following iv administration; and immediately prior to and every 30 minutes for 2 hours and then every hour for 6 hours following im and sc administration of 0.55 U of porcine regular insulin/kg of body weight. Model-independent pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on each data set.

Plasma iri concentration declined rapidly after iv administration of regular insulin and then returned to baseline iri concentration by 3.2 ± 0.8 hours. The absorption kinetics following iv administration of regular insulin were similar to those found in earlier studies in healthy dogs and human beings.

The im and sc routes of regular insulin administration resulted in a pharmacologic concentration of iri at 30 minutes. The peak mean (± SD) plasma iri concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) greater following sc administratin than it was following im administration of regular insulin (263 ± 185 and 151 ± 71 IμU/ml, respectively). The time of the peak plasma iri concentration (68 ± 31 minutes and 60 ± 30 minutes) and the time to return to baseline plasma iri concentration (5.8 ± 1.2 hours and 5.8 ± 1.3 hours) were not significantly different following sc and im administration of regular insulin, respectively. The absorption kinetics following sc administration of regular insulin were similar to those found in earlier studies in healthy dogs and human beings. The absorption kinetics following im administration of regular insulin differed from those found in earlier studies and was similar to the absorption kinetics of regular insulin administered sc in this study. The reasons for this similarity were not readily apparent.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Pili from 11 distinct serotypes of Bacteroides nodosus were examined for diversity of pilin polypeptide subunits among serotypes and for purity of the pilin preparations. The pilin of all 11 samples was shown to be homogeneous. Mean ± sd molecular weight of the pilin of 7 serotypes (A198, IV, V, VI, IX, XVII, and XVIII) was 18,500 ± 100. The pilin of serotypes I, III, and VIII had molecular weight of 17,600, 19,400, and 19,000, respectively. Serotype XV differed greatly from the other 10 serotypes in that 2 distinct polypeptide bands with molecular weight of approximately 7,800 and 6,200 were detected. We suggest that these 2 low molecular weight bands resulted from proteolytic cleavage of the pilin protein.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the immunogenicity of thermostable live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV) preserved by vaporization (PBV) and delivered to the duodenal mucosa of a wildlife species targeted for an oral vaccination program.

ANIMALS 8 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

PROCEDURES Endoscopy was used to place RABV PBV (n = 3 foxes), alginate-encapsulated RABV PBV (3 foxes), or nonpreserved RABV (2 foxes) vaccine into the duodenum of foxes. Blood samples were collected weekly to monitor the immune response. Saliva samples were collected weekly and tested for virus shedding by use of a conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR assay. Foxes were euthanized 28 days after vaccine administration, and relevant tissues were collected and tested for presence of RABV.

RESULTS 2 of 3 foxes that received RABV PBV and 1 of 2 foxes that received nonpreserved RABV seroconverted by day 28. None of the 3 foxes receiving alginate-encapsulated RABV PBV seroconverted. No RABV RNA was detected in saliva at any of the time points, and RABV antigen or RNA was not detected in any of the tissues obtained on day 28. None of the foxes displayed any clinical signs of rabies.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study indicated that a live-attenuated RABV vaccine delivered to the duodenal mucosa can induce an immune response in gray foxes. A safe, potent, thermostable RABV vaccine that could be delivered orally to wildlife or domestic animals would enhance current rabies control and prevention efforts.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on rate and degree of return to function of the limb and development of degenerative joint disease (DJD) after surgical creation and subsequent stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle.

Animals

12 clinically normal adult large (19.5 to 31.5 kg) dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were anesthetized, and the right CrCL was severed via arthrotomy, destabilizing the stifle. After 3 weeks, the stifle was surgically stabilized. Three weeks later, 6 dogs were subjected to an EMS treatment protocol for the thigh muscles. At 5, 9, 13, and 19 weeks after stifle destabilization, treated (n = 6) and control (n = 6) dogs were evaluated for return of stifle function. Gross and histologic evaluations of the stifles were performed at 19 weeks after stifle destabilization.

Results

Treated dogs had significantly (P = 0.001) better lameness score than did control dogs. There was less palpable crepitation of the stifle in treated dogs (P = 0.06); treated dogs also had significantly (P = 0.01) fewer radiographic signs of bone changes. Thigh circumference was significantly (P = 0.02) larger in treated dogs.There was less gross cartilage damage (P = 0.07) in the EMS-treated dogs, but more medial meniscal damage (P = 0.058, cranial pole; P = 0.051, caudal pole).

Conclusions

Improved lameness scores, larger thigh circumference, and decreased radiographically apparent bony changes observed for the treated group of dogs support the hypothesis that dogs treated by EMS after surgical stabilization of the CrCL-deficient stifle had improved limb function, with less DJD, than did dogs treated with the currently accepted clinical protocol of cage rest and slow return to normal activity. However, results of force plate evaluation did not support the hypothesis. Increased meniscal damage in dogs treated by EMS may be cause for concern. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1473–1478)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of autologous fibrinogen (AF) and absorbable barrier membrane (ABM) on periodontal healing of canine experimental grade-III furcation defects.

Animals

18 conditioned, laboratory-source, adult Beagles.

Procedure

Defects were developed bilaterally at the second and fourth premolars and maintained for 12 weeks. Defects were treated with AF, ABM, AF and ABM, or debridement. Digital subtraction radiography, histologic evaluation, and histomorphometric analysis of defect healing was done at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment to determine percentage increases in bone volume, height, area, and length of periodontal regeneration along the perimeter of the defect.

Results

Comparison of defects at post-treatment intervals indicated significantly greater healing of debridement and AF-treated defects, compared with ABM-treated defects at 3 months; however, by 6 months, there were no significant differences in defect healing for all histomorphometric variables. Defects treated with ABM were associated with significantly less root ankylosis than other treatments. Defects treated with debridement had significantly greater increases in bone volume at 6 months after treatment, compared with groups treated with ABM. There was a significant correlation between regenerated bone area, bone volume, and periodontal regeneration for all treatments at 3 and 6 months after treatment.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Use of AF and ABM did not enhance the amount of periodontal healing, compared with debridement only. The ABM-treated defects were essentially devoid of root ankylosis. Grade-III furcation defects may respond equally well to conservative periodontal surgery or guided tissue regenerative techniques. The prevention of root ankylosis is a substantial benefit favoring this latter method of treatment. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1329-1338)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A syndrome characterized by anemia, erythrocyte dyscrasia, low body weight, and hypothyroidism was observed in 8 llamas (Lama glama). At initial examination (1 to 23 months of age; median, 7.5 months), llamas (3 males, 5 females) were markedly underweight (29 to 55 kg; median, 36 kg) and anemic (pcv, 12.9 to 25.5% [median, 19%]). Five of the llamas became progressively more anemic over time; in 2 of them, pcv decreased to < 10%. Erythrocyte changes included severe poikilocytosis, anisocytosis, asymmetric distribution of hemoglobin within the cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic extensions from one or both poles. Six llamas had moderate to severe valgus deformities of the carpus. All llamas had low baseline serum thyroxine concentration and diminished response to thyrotropin administration. Baseline and post-thyrotropin triiodothyronine concentrations did not have consistent patterns. Five llamas were hypophosphatemic and 7 had low serum iron concentration (iron concentration was not determined in 1 llama). Orally administered iron supplementation did not induce clinical improvement. Because 3 of the affected llamas were full sisters, a genetic basis for the problem has to be considered. It was not possible to evaluate the familial relationship of the other 5 affected llamas. Although the underlying cause of the problem was not established, the prognosis for affected llamas is guarded to poor.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To estimate sensitivity and accuracy of subjective evaluation of mild lameness in horses during treadmill locomotion and to correlate subjective evaluation with kinematic analysis.

Animals

19 lame and 5 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

Lameness was evaluated by subjective score and kinematic analysis before and after palmar digital nerve block (PDNB). Evaluations were made by 6 clinicians and 7 interns or residents. Within- and between-observer agreement analyses (κ values) were calculated and compared, using a Student’s t-test. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated between clinician’s change in score and the change in kinematic variables after PDNB.

Results

Within-observer agreement was within the range expected for conditions of moderate diagnostic difficulty. Within-observer agreement was higher for clinicians than for interns or residents. Between-observer agreement was acceptable for scores within 1 value of each other. Between-observer agreement of change in lameness score after PDNB was poor. When kinematic variables were ranked with each clinician’s subjective change in score, only 2 were among the top 3 for the majority of clinicians. Asymmetry of vertical head movement between contralateral forelimb stance phases and the point of maximum hoof height during swing decreased as lameness subjectively improved.

Conclusion

Mild lameness may be difficult to evaluate during treadmill locomotion. Although clinicians were more repeatable in their subjective evaluation of lameness than interns or residents, they were not more reliable at detecting the true state of lameness.

Clinical Relevance

Lack of agreement between clinician scoring of mild lameness emphasizes the need to use more objective measures for quantifying lameness. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1370–1377)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Nine dairy herds (mean size, 149 cows) with bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts of < 300,000 cells/ml and > 80% of cows with Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear somatic cell counts ≤ 4 were selected for study. Each herd was monitored for 12 consecutive months. Duplicate quarter-milk specimens were collected from each cow for bacteriologic culturing at beginning of lactation, cessation of lactation, and at the time of each clinical episode of mastitis. Streptococcus agalactiae was never isolated and Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from < 1% of all quarters. There were 554 episodes of clinical mastitis. During the year of study, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis varied from 15.6 to 63.7% of cows among the 9 herds. Mean costs per cow per year in herd for mastitis prevention were: $10 for paper towels, $3 for nonlactating cow treatment, and $10 for teat disinfectants. Mean cost associated with clinical mastitis was $107/episode. Approximately 84% ($90) of the costs attributed to a clinical episode were associated with decreased milk production and nonsalable milk. Costs of medication and professional veterinary fees per clinical episode varied Significantly among the 9 herds. Three of the herds did not have a veterinarian treat a clinical episode of mastitis during the year of study even though 2 of these herds had the first and third highest incidence rates of clinical mastitis. When calculated on a per cow in herd basis, mean costs of $40/cow/year were attributed to clinical mastitis. Our findings suggest that herds that have effectively controlled mastitis caused by contagious pathogens may still have substantial economic losses as a result of clinical mastitis and that losses and even rates of clinical mastitis may vary considerably among such herds.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association