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Objective—To determine the anesthetic-sparing effect of maropitant, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, during noxious visceral stimulation of the ovary and ovarian ligament in dogs.

Animals—Eight 1-year-old female dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane. Following instrumentation and stabilization, the right ovary and ovarian ligament were accessed by use of laparoscopy. The ovary was stimulated with a traction force of 6.61 N. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined before and after 2 doses of maropitant.

Results—The sevoflurane MAC value was 2.12 ± 0.4% during stimulation without treatment (control). Administration of maropitant (1 mg/kg, IV, followed by 30 μg/kg/h, IV) decreased the sevoflurane MAC to 1.61 ± 0.4% (24% decrease). A higher maropitant dose (5 mg/kg, IV, followed by 150 μg/kg/h, IV) decreased the MAC to 1.48 ± 0.4% (30% decrease).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Maropitant decreased the anesthetic requirements during visceral stimulation of the ovary and ovarian ligament in dogs. Results suggest the potential role for neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists to manage ovarian and visceral pain.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate effects of one-lung ventilation on oxygen delivery in anesthetized dogs with an open thoracic cavity.

Animals—8 clinically normal adult Walker Hound dogs.

Procedure—Each dog was anesthetized and subjected to one-lung ventilation during a period when it had an open thoracic cavity. A Swan-Ganz catheter was used to measure hemodynamic variables and obtain mixed-venous blood samples. A catheter was inserted in the dorsal pedal artery to measure arterial pressure and obtain arterial blood samples. Oxygen delivery index was calculated and used to assess effects of one-lung ventilation on cardiopulmonary function. Effects on hemodynamic and pulmonary variables were analyzed.

Results—One-lung ventilation caused significant decreases in PaO2, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), mixed-venous oxygen saturation, and arterial oxygen content (CaO2). One-lung ventilation caused significant increases in PaCO2, physiologic dead space, and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference. Changes in SaO2, CaO2, and PaCO2, although significantly different, were not considered to be of clinical importance. One-lung ventilation induced a significant increase in pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and shunt fraction. One-lung ventilation did not have a significant effect on cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, pulmonary vascular resistance index, and oxygen delivery index.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—One-lung ventilation affected gas exchange and hemodynamic function, although oxygen delivery in clinically normal dogs was not affected during a period with an open thoracic cavity. One-lung ventilation can be used safely in healthy dogs with an open thoracic cavity during surgery. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:443–448)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the long-term survival rate and factors that affect survival time of domestic ferrets treated surgically for hyperadrenocorticism.

Study Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—130 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism that were treated surgically.

Procedures—Medical records of ferrets surgically treated for hyperadrenocorticism were reviewed. Data recorded included signalment, duration of clinical signs prior to hospital admission, CBC values, serum biochemical analysis results, anesthetic time, surgical time, concurrent diseases, adrenal gland affected (right, left, or both [bilateral]), histopathologic diagnosis, surgical procedure, caudal vena caval involvement (yes or no), postoperative melena (yes or no), days in hospital after surgery, and whether clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism developed after surgery.

Results—130 ferrets were entered in the study (11 of 130 ferrets were admitted and underwent surgery twice). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 98% and 88%, respectively. A 50% survival rate was never reached. Combined partial adrenal gland resection with cryosurgery had a significantly negative effect on survival time. No other risk factors were identified. Survival time was not significantly affected by either histopathologic diagnosis or specific affected adrenal gland (right, left, or bilateral).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ferrets with adrenal gland masses that were treated surgically had a good prognosis. Survival time of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism undergoing surgery was not affected by the histologic characteristic of the tumor, the adrenal glands affected (right, left, or bilateral), or complete versus partial adrenal gland resection. Debulking was a sufficient surgical technique to allow a favorable long-term outcome when complete excision was not possible.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether premature death occurred among dogs with nonmalignant splenic histopathologic findings after splenectomy for nontraumatic hemoabdomen.


197 dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen that underwent splenectomy and histopathologic evaluation between 2005 and 2018.


Information was obtained from electronic medical records, dog owners, and referring veterinarians to determine patient characteristics, histopathologic findings, survival information, and cause of death. Dogs were grouped based on histopathological diagnosis and outcome, and median survival times (MSTs) and risk factors for death were determined.


Histopathologic findings indicated malignancy in 144 of the 197 (73.1%) dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen. Hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 126 dogs (87.5% of those with malignancies and 64.0% of all dogs). Nine of 53 (17%) dogs with nonmalignant histopathologic findings had an adverse outcome and premature death, with an MST of 49 days. Risk factors for this outcome included low plasma total solids concentration, an elevated hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score, and a medium or high hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score category.


This study showed that there is a group of dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen due to splenic disease that have nonmalignant histopathologic findings after splenectomy, but nonetheless suffer an adverse outcome and die prematurely of a suspected malignancy. Further evaluation of potential at-risk populations may yield detection of otherwise overlooked malignancies.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate risk factors for outcome for dogs with adrenal gland tumors with or without invasion of the caudal vena cava treated via adrenalectomy.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—86 dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of adrenal gland tumors.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of an adrenal gland tumor from 1993 to 2009 were reviewed; data collected including signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test findings, treatments prior to surgery, findings at surgery including additional procedures performed and extent of caudal vena caval invasion (local invasion [caudal to the hepatic portion of the vena cava] or extensive invasion [cranial to the hepatic portion of the vena cava]), procedures performed during surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, perioperative complications, follow-up data, and necropsy findings.

Results—Of the 86 dogs, 14 had adenomas, 45 had adrenocortical carcinomas, and 27 had pheochromocytomas. Fourteen dogs had invasion of the caudal vena cava; of these tumors, 7 were locally invasive and 7 were extensively invasive. Risk factors for poor short-term survival (death within 14 days following surgery) were vena caval invasion, extent of invasion, pheochromocytoma, intraoperative transfusion, and postoperative factors including disseminated intravascular coagulation, pancreatitis, hypotension, hypoxemia, and renal failure. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for poor short-term survival revealed that extensive invasion was the most important factor. Regardless of extent of invasion or tumor type, long-term survival was possible.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Invasion of the caudal vena cava, particularly tumor thrombus extension beyond the hepatic hilus, was associated with a higher postoperative mortality rate, but did not affect long-term prognosis in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy because of an adrenal gland tumor.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare outcome and intermediateterm survival for dogs undergoing open surgical correction of subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) with those for dogs with SAS that did not undergo surgery.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—44 dogs with congenital SAS.

Procedure—Maximum instantaneous systolic pressure gradients were determined by use of Doppler echocardiography. Cardiopulmonary bypass and open surgical correction of SAS (membranectomy with or without septal myectomy) was performed in 22 dogs, whereas 22 dogs did not undergo surgical correction. Cumulative survival was compared between surgical and nonsurgical groups, using Kaplan-Meier nonparametric analysis and a Mantel-Cox log-rank test.

Results—Initial systolic pressure gradients were not significantly different for dogs undergoing surgery (128 ± 55 mm Hg), compared with those that did not undergo surgery (117 ± 57 mm Hg). Systolic pressure gradients were significantly decreased after surgery in dogs that underwent surgery (54 ± 27 mm Hg). Cumulative survival was not significantly different between dogs in the surgical and nonsurgical groups. Censoring surgery-related mortality in the analysis still did not reveal a significant difference in cumulative survival between the surgical and nonsurgical groups.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Despite reductions in the systolic pressure gradient and possible associated improvement in exercise tolerance, a palliative benefit on survival was not documented in dogs undergoing surgery for SAS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:364–367)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To describe the surgical technique for open resection of congenital subvalvular aortic stenosis in dogs and to determine outcome of dogs undergoing the procedure.


Uncontrolled clinical trial.


17 dogs with congenital discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis.


Dogs were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass by catheterizing the femoral artery and both vena cavae. The aorta was cross clamped, and cold cardioplegia solution was administered. The aortic root then was opened with a curvilinear incision. A subvalvular discrete fibrous ring was resected in all dogs. Septal myectomy was performed simultaneously on 11 dogs.


15 of 17 dogs survived the operation and were discharged from the hospital. Mean ± SD maximal instantaneous aortic systolic pressure gradient measured by means of Doppler echocardiography was significantly reduced from 119 ± 42 mm of Hg before surgery to 41 ± 10 mm of Hg 12 months after surgery. Despite substantial reduction in the systolic pressure gradient, 4 of 15 dogs died suddenly between 7 days and 30 months after surgery. Three of the 4 dogs that died suddenly had pressure gradients ≥ 180 mm of Hg and ventricular tachycardia before surgery. Eleven dogs were still alive between 1 and 48 months after surgery.

Clinical Implications

The procedure resulted in substantial reductions in systolic pressure gradients in dogs with severe congenital subvalvular aortic stenosis. However, some dogs with severe aortic stenosis died suddenly after surgery. Thus, this surgery should not be considered curative. Proof of a survival benefit in dogs undergoing this surgery will have to await longer term follow-up. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1255–1261)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical signs, diagnostic findings, outcome, and prognostic factors in dogs treated surgically for massive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and compare survival times of surgically and conservatively treated dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—48 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records were examined for clinical signs, diagnostic and surgical findings, and postoperative outcome. Dogs were allocated into surgery and nonsurgery groups depending on whether curative- intent liver lobectomy was performed. Data from the surgical and nonsurgical groups were analyzed to identify prognostic factors and determine and compare rates of tumor control and survival time.

Results—42 dogs were treated surgically, and 6 were managed conservatively. In the surgery group, intraoperative mortality rate was 4.8% with no local recurrence, metastatic rate was 4.8%, and median survival time was > 1,460 days (range, 1 to 1,460 days). High alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were associated with poor prognosis. Median survival time for the nonsurgery group was 270 days (range, 0 to 415 days), which was significantly less than that of surgically treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Liver lobectomy is recommended for dogs with massive HCC because tumor-related mortality rate was 15.4 times higher in dogs in the nonsurgery group, compared with the surgery group. Tumor control was excellent after surgical resection with no local recurrence and a low metastatic rate. Prognostic factors were identified, but their clinical relevance was uncertain because only 9.5% of dogs in the surgery group died as a result of their disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1225–1230)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association