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  • Author or Editor: Elizabeth W. Howerth x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine how viral shedding and development or lack of clinical disease relate to contact transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) in pigs and determine whether pigs infected by contact could infect other pigs by contact.

Animals—63 pigs.

Procedure—Serologically naive pigs were housed in direct contact with pigs that were experimentally inoculated with VSV-NJ via ID inoculation of the apex of the snout, application to a scarified area of the oral mucosa, application to intact oral mucosa, or ID inoculation of the ear. In a second experiment, pigs infected with VSV-NJ by contact were moved and housed with additional naive pigs. Pigs were monitored and sampled daily for clinical disease and virus isolation and were serologically tested before and after infection or contact.

Results—Contact transmission developed only when vesicular lesions were evident. Transmission developed rapidly; contact pigs shed virus as early as 1 day after contact. In pens in which contact transmission was detected, 2 of 3 or 3 of 3 contact pigs were infected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transmission was lesion-dependent; however, vesicular lesions often were subtle with few or no clinical signs of infection. Contact transmission was efficient, with resulting infections ranging from subclinical (detected only by seroconversion) to clinical (development of vesicular lesions). Long-term maintenance of VSV-NJ via contact transmission alone appears unlikely. Pigs represent an efficient large-animal system for further study of VSV-NJ pathogenesis and transmission. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:516–520)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare diagnostic quality of percutaneous kidney biopsy specimens obtained with laparoscopy versus ultrasound guidance in dogs and compare diagnostic quality of specimens obtained with 14- versus 18-gauge biopsy needles.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedure—In each dog, 2 biopsy specimens were obtained from each kidney, 1 with a 14-gauge biopsy needle and 1 with an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 1 kidney by means of ultrasound guidance and from the contralateral kidney by means of direct viewing during laparoscopy. Number of glomeruli, quality of the biopsy specimen, proportion of specimens that contained muscle tissue, and proportion of specimens with fragmentation or crushing were determined.

Results—Mean ± SD number of glomeruli (32.6 ± 11.0) in laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens was significantly higher than mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 14-gauge specimens; mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 18-gauge specimens; and mean number of glomeruli in laparoscopic, 18-gauge specimens. All 10 laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens were classified as excellent. The proportion of 18-gauge biopsy specimens with crushing or fragmentation was significantly higher than the proportion of 14-gauge specimens. One of the kidneys biopsied with ultrasound guidance had a large amount of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was modest and transient following laparoscopic biopsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that excellent-quality renal biopsy specimens with large numbers of glomeruli can be obtained with 14-gauge, double-spring-activated biopsy needles during laparoscopy. Renal biopsy specimens obtained with 18-gauge biopsy needles frequently had few glomeruli and often were crushed or fragmented, increasing the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:317–321)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association