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  • Author or Editor: Anthony Blikslager x
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Summary

Medical records of horses that underwent surgical treatment for colic between 1990 and 1992 were reviewed. Horses with a pulse rate of ≥ 60 beats/min or signs of abdominal pain, which were also accompanied by a volume of > 2 L of material that refluxed from the stomach during the postoperative period (excluding horses with anterior enteritis), comprised the postoperative ileus (poi) group. Horses that had < 2 L of material reflux during the postoperative period and survived > 3 days after surgery comprised the reference population. The association of preoperative and intraoperative clinical variables with development of poi was evaluated by use of logistic regression analysis.

Of 148 horses, 117 were assigned to the reference population, and 31 (21%) developed poi. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine that pcv, pulse rate, type and location of lesion detected during surgery, and serum glucose concentration were the most important variables associated with development of poi. Time of recovery from anesthesia to development of poi was 0.5 to 120 hours (median, 13 hours). Duration of poi was 1 to 7 days (median, 1 day). Four of 31 (13%) horses with poi died. Of 148 horses, only 10 (7%) died; however, 4 of the 10 (40%) deaths in the short-term postoperative period were attributable to poi.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A study was conducted to investigate indications for, typical findings during, and outcome of repeat laparotomies in 57 cattle with gastrointestinal disorders. Cattle were grouped according to the reason the initial laparotomy had been performed. Group-1 cattle (n = 46) had had left or right displacement of the abomasum (lda or rda) or right volvulus of the abomasum. Group-2 cattle (n = 10) had had ruminal, reticular, or abomasal obstruction or perforation. Group-3 cattle (n = 7) had had obstruction, volvulus, distention, or perforation of the small or large intestine.

Median interval between laparotomies was 1 month (range, 1 day to 38 months). Intraoperative findings during repeat laparotomy in group-1 cattle included lda (n = 18), rda (9), right volvulus of the abdomen (5), pneumoperitoneum (1), diffuse abdominal adhesions (1), cecal adhesions (1), adhesions of the rumen to the body wall (1), abscess in the cranial portion of the abdomen (1), reticular adhesions (1), localized necrosis (1), and idiopathic rumen distention (1). Intraoperative findings during repeat laparotomy in group-2 cattle included abscess in the cranial portion of the abdomen (4), no abnormalities (1), distended rumen (1), ruptured abomasum (1), recurrent abomasal impaction (1), diffuse abdominal adhesions (1), and pyloric fat necrosis (1). Intraoperative findings during repeat laparotomy in group-3 cattle included lda (3), rda (1), cecal volvulus (1), anastomotic rupture (1), and impacted colocolostomy (1).

Seven cows and 1 calf underwent additional repeat laparotomies. Forty-four (77%) of the 57 cattle were discharged following final laparotomy. Fourteen of the 20 group-1 cattle, 1 of the 6 group-2 cattle, and 2 of the 3 group-3 cattle for which follow-up information was available were productive after repeat laparotomy.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate effects of lidocaine hydrochloride administered IV on mucosal inflammation in ischemia-injured jejunum of horses treated with flunixin meglumine.

Animals—24 horses.

Procedures—Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS; 1 mL/50 kg, IV [1 dose]), flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), lidocaine (bolus [1.3 mg/kg] and constant rate infusion [0.05 mg/kg/min], IV, during and after recovery from surgery), or both flunixin and lidocaine (n = 6/group). During surgery, blood flow was occluded for 2 hours in 2 sections of jejunum in each horse. Uninjured and ischemia-injured jejunal specimens were collected after the ischemic period and after euthanasia 18 hours later for histologic assessment and determination of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression (via western blot procedures). Plasma samples collected prior to (baseline) and 8 hours after the ischemic period were analyzed for prostanoid concentrations.

Results—Immediately after the ischemic period, COX-2 expression in horses treated with lidocaine alone was significantly less than expression in horses treated with SS or flunixin alone. Eighteen hours after the ischemic period, mucosal neutrophil counts in horses treated with flunixin alone were significantly higher than counts in other treatment groups. Compared with baseline plasma concentrations, postischemia prostaglandin E2 metabolite and thromboxane B2 concentrations increased in horses treated with SS and in horses treated with SS or lidocaine alone, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with ischemia-injured jejunum, lidocaine administered IV reduced plasma prostaglandin E2 metabolite concentration and mucosal COX-2 expression. Coadministration of lidocaine with flunixin ameliorated the flunixin-induced increase in mucosal neutrophil counts.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the cyclooxygenase (COX) selectivity of robenacoxib and its effect on recovery of jejunal mucosa following ischemic injury in horses.

Animals—12 healthy horses.

Procedures—Half the maximal inhibition (EC50) of robenacoxib for COX-1 and COX-2 activity was established in bloods samples from 6 horses via measurement of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and prostaglandin E2 concentrations, respectively; COX selectivity was subsequently calculated. Six other horses were anesthetized, and ischemia was induced in the jejunum for 2 hours. Control and ischemia-injured mucosa were collected and incubated with Ringer's solution (control treatment), flunixin meglumine (2.7 × 10−5M), or robenacoxib (2.7 × 10−5M). Transepithelial electrical resistance and mannitol flux were measured over a 4-hour recovery period. Bathing solution TXB2 and prostaglandin E metabolite concentrations were measured to assess COX-1 and COX-2 function, respectively.

Results—The mean ± SD EC50 value of robenacoxib for COX-1 and COX-2 was 11.46 ± 4.46μM and 0.19 ± 0.07μM, respectively, resulting in a COX selectivity ratio of 61.01. The transepithelial electrical resistance of ischemia-injured jejunum treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than that of control and robenacoxib-treated tissues. A significant increase in concentrations of prostaglandin E metabolites and TXB2 was detected in control and robenacoxib-treated tissues but not flunixin meglumine—treated tissues.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Robenacoxib selectively inhibited COX-2 and allowed recovery of barrier function in ischemia-injured equine jejunal tissue in vitro.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

The number of companion pigs in the US is increasing, as is the frequency with which they present to primary companion care practices. However, pigs are often an understudied species in veterinary curricula, and many students graduate from veterinary school with minimal porcine handling experience. Coupled with the poor peripheral vascular access associated with pigs, this presents a challenge for many new graduates and other primary care veterinarians seeking to improve their knowledge of porcine handling, anatomy, and medical care. Furthermore, much of the available veterinary literature regarding porcine venous access is dated, limited to technical notes, or inaccessible to many primary care veterinarians. This review aims to supplement this lack of knowledge by discussing techniques in restraint, sedation, venipuncture, and catheterization of companion pigs as a reference for veterinarians and researchers alike.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association