Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 37 of 37 items for

  • Author or Editor: Sharon A. Center x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To characterize clinical signs, clinicopathologic features, treatments, and survival in dogs with naturally acquired foodborne aflatoxicosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—72 dogs that consumed aflatoxin-contaminated commercial dog food.

Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. Between December 2005 and March 2006, dogs were identified as having foodborne aflatoxin hepatotoxicosis on the basis of the history of consumption of contaminated food or characteristic histopathologic lesions (subject dog or a recently deceased dog in the same household or kennel). Recorded information included signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic test results, treatments, and survival. Data were analyzed by survival status.

Results—Most dogs were of large breeds from breeding kennels. No significant differences were found in age or weight between 26 (36%) survivor dogs and 46 (64%) nonsurvivor dogs. Severity of clinical signs varied widely; 7 dogs died abruptly. In order of onset, clinical features included anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea (melena, hematochezia), abdominal effusion, peripheral edema, and terminal encephalopathy and hemorrhagic diathesis. Common clinicopathologic features included coagulopathic and electrolyte disturbances, hypoproteinemia, increased serum liver enzyme activities, hyperbilirubinemia, and hypocholesterolemia. Cytologic hepatocellular lipid vacuolation was confirmed in 11 dogs examined. In comparisons of clinicopathologic test results between survivor and nonsurvivor dogs, only granular cylindruria (7/21 dogs) consistently predicted death. Best early markers of aflatoxicosis were low plasma activities of anticoagulant proteins (protein C, antithrombin) and hypocholesterolemia. Despite aggressive treatment, many but not all severely affected dogs died.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum liver enzyme activities and bilirubin concentration were unreliable early markers of aflatoxin hepatotoxicosis in dogs. Hypocholesterolemia and decreased plasma protein C and antithrombin activities may function as exposure biomarkers.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine signalments, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, imaging findings, treatments, and survival time of cats with presumed primary copper-associated hepatopathy (PCH) and to determine quantitative measures and histologic characteristics of the accumulation and distribution of copper in liver samples of cats with presumed PCH, extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, chronic nonsuppurative cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis, and miscellaneous other hepatobiliary disorders and liver samples of cats without hepatobiliary disease.

Design—Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Animals—100 cats with hepatobiliary disease (PCH [n = 11], extrahepatic bile duct obstruction [14], cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis [37], and miscellaneous hepatobiliary disorders [38]) and 14 cats without hepatobiliary disease.

Procedures—From 1980 to 2013, cats with and without hepatobiliary disease confirmed by liver biopsy and measurement of hepatic copper concentrations were identified. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and imaging data were compared between cats with and without PCH.

Results—Cats with PCH were typically young (median age, 2.0 years); clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics were similar to those of cats with other liver disorders. Copper-specific staining patterns and quantification of copper in liver samples confirmed PCH (on the basis of detection of > 700 μg/g of liver sample dry weight). Six cats with PCH underwent successful treatment with chelation (penicillamine; n = 5), antioxidants (5), low doses of elemental zinc (2), and feeding of hepatic support or high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets, and other hepatic support treatments. One cat that received penicillamine developed hemolytic anemia, which resolved after discontinuation of administration. Three cats with high hepatic copper concentrations developed hepatocellular neoplasia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that copper accumulates in livers of cats as primary and secondary processes. Long-term management of cats with PCH was possible.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize findings in Shih Tzus with progressive superficial necrolytic dermatitis and degenerative vacuolar hepatopathy consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 31 Shih Tzus.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to obtain information on signalment, history, treatment, outcome, and results of clinicopathologic testing, abdominal ultrasonography, and histologic examination of skin and liver specimens. A pedigree analysis was performed.

RESULTS There were 16 males and 15 females. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 8 years (range, 5 to 14 years). Common clinical signs included lethargy, inappetence, weight loss, and lameness. Twenty-five dogs had cutaneous lesions consistent with hepatocutaneous syndrome; the remaining 6 initially only had hepatic abnormalities, but 3 of the 6 subsequently developed cutaneous lesions. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included microcytosis (15/24 [63%] dogs) and high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (24/24 [100%] dogs). Hepatic ultrasonographic findings included a hyperechoic or heteroechoic appearance to the parenchyma with innumerable hypoechoic nodules. Histologic hepatic lesions consisted of degenerative vacuolar (glycogen and lipid) hepatopathy associated with minimally fibrotic to nonfibrotic, noninflammatory, proliferative nodules. Pedigree analysis confirmed a common ancestry in 12 of 18 dogs. Median survival time was 3 months (range, 1 to 36 months).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that HCS may have a heritable component in Shih Tzus, although the condition may also be identified in Shih Tzus without affected relatives. Clinical, clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and histologic abnormalities in affected Shih Tzus were similar to those previously reported for dogs of other breeds with HCS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:802–813)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways affected in dogs with aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome (ACHES) compared to healthy control (CON) dogs of similar ages and breeds. To improve our understanding of ACHES pathophysiology and identify novel candidate biomarkers associated with ACHES.

ANIMALS

A prospective case-control study. Privately owned dogs with ACHES (n = 19) and healthy (CON) dogs (n = 9) were recruited between February 18, 2015, and April 18, 2018.

METHODS

A prospective case-control study. Plasma and urine were collected from ACHES and CON dogs. The Cornell University Proteomics and Metabolomics Core Facility conducted an untargeted metabolomic analysis.

RESULTS

After controlling for age, sex, and weight, 111 plasma and 207 urine metabolites significantly differed between ACHES and CON dogs. Data reduction and cluster analysis revealed robust segregation between ACHES and CON dogs. Enrichment analysis of significant compounds in plasma or urine identified altered metabolic pathways, including those related to AA metabolism, cellular energetics, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker analysis identified metabolites that best-distinguished ACHES from CON dogs, including pyruvic acid isomer and glycerol-3-phosphate in the plasma and an alanine isomer and choline in the urine.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings provide an in-depth analysis of metabolic perturbations associated with ACHES. Several affected metabolic pathways (eg, lipid metabolism) offer a new understanding of ACHES pathophysiology. Novel candidate biomarkers warrant further evaluation to determine their potential to aid in ACHES diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, hepatic ultrasonographic characteristics, endocrinologic profiles, treatment response, and age at death of Scottish Terriers with progressive vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—114 Scottish Terriers with progressive VH.

Procedures—Electronic databases from 1980 to 2013 were searched for adult (age > 1 year) Scottish Terriers with histopathologic diagnoses of diffuse glycogen-like VH. Available sections of liver specimens were histologically reevaluated to confirm diffuse VH with or without HCC; 8 dogs with HCC only had neoplastic tissue available. Physical examination, clinicopathologic, treatment, and survival data were obtained.

Results—39 of 114 (34%) dogs with VH had HCC detected at surgery or necropsy or by abdominal ultrasonography. Histologic findings indicated that HCC was seemingly preceded by dysplastic hepatocellular foci. No significant differences were found in clinicopathologic variables or age at death between VH-affected dogs with or without HCC. Fifteen of 26 (58%) dogs with high hepatic copper concentrations had histologic features consistent with copper-associated hepatopathy. Although signs consistent with hyperadrenocorticism were observed in 40% (46/114) of dogs, definitive diagnosis was inconsistently confirmed. Assessment of adrenal sex hormone concentrations before and after ACTH administration identified high progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in 88% (22/25) and 80% (20/25) of tested dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that VH in Scottish Terriers may be linked to adrenal steroidogenesis and a predisposition to HCC. In dogs with VH, frequent serum biochemical analysis and ultrasonographic surveillance for early tumor detection are recommended.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, and hepatic histopathologic features and outcome for dogs with probable ketoconazole-induced liver injury.

ANIMALS

15 dogs with suspected ketoconazole-induced liver injury that underwent liver biopsy.

PROCEDURES

Medical record data were summarized regarding signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic and hepatic histopathologic findings, concurrent medications, ketoconazole dose, treatment duration, and outcome.

RESULTS

Median age and body weight were 8.2 years (range, 5 to 15 years) and 13.0 kg (28.6 lb; range, 8.2 to 38.0 kg [18.0 to 83.6 lb]), respectively. The most common breed was Cocker Spaniel (n = 5). All dogs received ketoconazole to treat cutaneous Malassezia infections. Median daily ketoconazole dose was 7.8 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb; range, 4.4 to 26.0 mg/kg [2.0 to 11.8 mg/lb]), PO. Treatment duration ranged from 0.3 to 100 cumulative weeks (intermittent cyclic administration in some dogs); 6 dogs were treated for ≤ 10 days. Common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. All dogs developed high serum liver enzyme activities. Hepatic histopathologic findings included variable lobular injury, mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and conspicuous aggregates of ceroid-lipofuscin–engorged macrophages that marked regions of parenchymal damage. Five dogs developed chronic hepatitis, including 3 with pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of the 10 dogs reported to have died at last follow-up, survival time after illness onset ranged from 0.5 to 165 weeks, with 7 dogs dying of liver-related causes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings for dogs with hepatotoxicosis circumstantially associated with ketoconazole treatment suggested proactive monitoring of serum liver enzyme activities is advisable before and sequentially after initiation of such treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize aminoaciduria and plasma amino acid concentrations in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome (HCS).

ANIMALS 20 client-owned dogs of various breeds and ages.

PROCEDURES HCS was definitively diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsy specimens (n = 12), gross and histologic appearance of skin lesions (4), and examination of skin and liver biopsy specimens (2) and presumptively diagnosed on the basis of cutaneous lesions with compatible clinicopathologic and hepatic ultrasonographic (honeycomb or Swiss cheese pattern) findings (2). Amino acid concentrations in heparinized plasma and urine (samples obtained within 8 hours of each other) were measured by use of ion exchange chromatography. Urine creatinine concentration was used to normalize urine amino acid concentrations. Plasma amino acid values were compared relative to mean reference values; urine-corrected amino acid values were compared relative to maximal reference values.

RESULTS All dogs had generalized hypoaminoacidemia, with numerous amino acid concentrations < 50% of mean reference values. The most consistent and severe abnormalities involved glutamine, proline, cysteine, and hydroxyproline, and all dogs had marked lysinuria. Urine amino acids exceeding maximum reference values (value > 1.0) included lysine, 1-methylhistidine, and proline.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hypoaminoacidemia in dogs with HCS prominently involved amino acids associated with the urea cycle and synthesis of glutathione and collagen. Marked lysinuria and prolinuria implicated dysfunction of specific amino acid transporters and wasting of amino acids essential for collagen synthesis. These findings may provide a means for tailoring nutritional support and for facilitating HCS diagnosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research