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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether use of electrostimuluated acupuncture (ESA) would result in significant improvements in ground reaction forces and lameness scores in dogs with chronic elbow joint osteoarthritis secondary to elbow joint dysplasia.

Design—Randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial.

Animals—9 dogs with chronic forelimb lameness and radiographic evidence of elbow joint osteoarthritis.

Procedures—All dogs had a 3-week control acclimation period during which gait analysis was performed weekly. Dogs then received ESA once weekly for 3 weeks followed by a sham treatment once weekly for 3 weeks or received the sham treatment followed by ESA. Gait analysis was repeated prior to each treatment, and owners were asked to provide pain scores by use of a visual analog scale method.

Results—Treatment (control, acupuncture, or sham) did not have a significant effect on ground reaction forces for any limb. Owners of 8 of the 9 dogs were able to correctly guess the time period when ESA was delivered.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ESA did not have any significant effects on severity of lameness, as determined by measurement of ground reaction forces, or severity of pain, as determined by visual analog scale pain scores, in dogs with chronic elbow joint osteoarthritis secondary to elbow joint dysplasia.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities.

ANIMALS

10 client-owned male dogs.

PROCEDURES

Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared.

RESULTS

Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe surgical techniques and perioperative management of dogs with von Willebrand disease (VWD) or factor VII (FVII) deficiency undergoing laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy and evaluate outcomes.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 20 client-owned dogs with VWD (n = 16) or FVII deficiency (4).

PROCEDURES Dogs with VWD or FVII deficiency that underwent laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy between 2012 and 2014 were retrospectively identified via a multi-institutional review of medical records.

RESULTS Median expression of von Willebrand factor was 19% (interquartile range, 18% to 30%). All 16 dogs with VWD were Doberman Pinschers, and all were pretreated with desmopressin; 4 also received cryoprecipitate. One of 4 dogs with FVII deficiency received plasma preoperatively, and 1 was treated with desmopressin; 2 dogs received no preoperative treatment. Laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed in 9 dogs with VWD and 2 dogs with FVII deficiency, laparoscopic ovariectomy with gastropexy was performed in 6 dogs with VWD and 1 dog with FVII deficiency, and laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy was performed in 1 dog with VWD and 1 dog with FVII deficiency. Iatrogenic splenic laceration requiring conversion to laparotomy occurred during trocar insertion in 1 dog with VWD. No postoperative complications, including signs of hemorrhage, were reported for any dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy in dogs with VWD or FVII deficiency pretreated with desmopressin, cryoprecipitate, or plasma transfusions were not associated with clinical signs of hemorrhage, suggesting that minimally invasive ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy may be considered in female dogs affected with these coagulopathies.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe postobstructive diuresis (POD) in cats undergoing surgical placement of ureteral stents or subcutaneous ureteral bypass systems for treatment of ureteral obstruction in cats and to identify factors associated with duration and maximum severity of POD.

DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS

37 client-owned cats with ureteral obstruction treated between August 2010 and December 2014.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data extracted included signalment, history, results from physical examinations and clinical laboratory analyses, treatment, urine output, and outcome. Data were evaluated to identify factors associated with POD duration and maximum severity, alone or in combination.

RESULTS

Serum concentrations of creatinine, potassium, phosphorus, and BUN before surgery positively correlated with duration and maximum severity of POD. Absolute changes in serum concentrations of creatinine, potassium, and BUN from before surgery to after surgery positively correlated with POD duration. Cats with anuria before surgery had longer POD than did other cats; however, there was no difference in POD duration or maximum severity with unilateral versus bilateral ureteral obstruction. Thirty-four of 37 (92%) cats survived to hospital discharge, which was not associated with whether ureteral obstruction was unilateral or bilateral. Azotemia resolved in 17 of the 34 (50%) cats that survived to hospital discharge.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study indicated that several factors were associated with POD duration and maximum severity, alone or in combination, and that with intensive management of fluid and electrolyte derangements, regardless of the extent of the original azotemia, a high percentage of cats survived to hospital discharge.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the outcome for cats with benign ureteral obstructions treated by means of ureteral stenting and to compare the outcome for these cats with outcome for a historical cohort of cats treated by means of ureterotomy only.

DESIGN Prospective study with historical cohort.

ANIMALS 62 client-owned cats with benign ureteral obstructions, including 26 cats treated with ureteral stenting and 36 cats previously treated with ureterotomy.

PROCEDURES Data were recorded prospectively (ureteral stent cases) or collected retrospectively from the medical records (ureterotomy cases), and results were compared.

RESULTS Cats treated with ureteral stents had significantly greater decreases in BUN and serum creatinine concentrations 1 day after surgery and at hospital discharge, compared with values for cats that underwent ureterotomy. Six cats in the ureteral stent group developed abdominal effusion after surgery, and cats in this group were significantly more likely to develop abdominal effusion when a ureterotomy was performed than when it was not. Cats that developed abdominal effusion after surgery were significantly less likely to survive to hospital discharge. Cats that underwent ureteral stenting were significantly more likely to have resolution of azotemia prior to hospital discharge than were cats that underwent ureterotomy alone.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that cats with benign ureteral obstructions treated with ureteral stenting were more likely to have resolution of azotemia prior to hospital discharge, compared with cats undergoing ureterotomy alone. Results of ureteral stenting were encouraging, but further investigation is warranted.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between the caudolateral curvilinear osteophyte (CCO) and osteoarthritis associated with hip dysplasia in dogs.

Design—Longitudinal cohort study.

Animals—48 Labrador Retrievers from 7 litters.

Procedure—In each of 24 sex- and size-matched pairs fed the same diet, a restricted-fed dog was fed 25% less than a control dog for life. The dogs' hips were evaluated in the standard ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic projection at 16, 30, and 52 weeks of age and then yearly for life. Histologic examination of hip joint tissues was performed on 45 dogs.

Results—Median age at death was 11.2 years. Adjusting for feeding group, dogs with a CCO were 3.7 times as likely to develop radiographic signs of osteoarthritis than those without a CCO. Stratified by diet, 100% of the control dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis and 55% of restricted-fed dogs with a CCO developed radiographic signs of osteoarthritis. The CCO was the first radiographic change seen in 22 of 29 (76%) dogs with osteoarthritis. Overall, 35 of 37 (95%) dogs with a CCO had histopathologic lesions of osteoarthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate a relationship between a CCO on the femoral neck and subsequent development of radiographic signs of osteoarthritis in Labrador Retrievers evaluated over their life span. A CCO is an important early radiographic indication of osteoarthritis associated with canine hip dysplasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:233–237)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess risk factors for recurrence of clinical signs associated with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) in dogs that had decompressive laminectomy without attempted prophylactic treatment of other disk spaces.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—229 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs that had decompressive laminectomy without prophylactic fenestration for a first episode of IVDD and were available for follow-up were reviewed. Information on 7 clinical and 8 radiographic potential risk factors were recorded.

Results—Clinical signs associated with recurrence of IVDD developed in 44 (19.2%) dogs. Ninety-six percent of recurrences developed within 3 years after surgery. Recurrence developed in 25% of Dachshunds and 15% of dogs of other breeds combined. Number of opacified disks was a significant risk factor for recurrence. Risk increased with number of opacified disks in an almost linear manner; each opacified disk increased risk by 1.4 times. Dogs with 5 or 6 opacified disks at the time of first surgery had a recurrence rate of 50%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When all likely episodes of recurrence are considered and a long follow-up period is achieved, true rate of recurrence of IVDD appears to be higher than in many previous reports. Dogs with multiple opacified disks at the time of first surgery should be considered a high-risk subpopulation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 1231–1236)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate short- and long-term outcomes for dogs undergoing anal sacculectomy for massive (> 5 cm) apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA).

ANIMALS

28 client-owned dogs with massive AGASACA.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective multi-institutional study was performed. Pre-, intra-, and post-operative data was collected, and variables were statistically analyzed for associations with progression-free interval (PFI) and overall survival (OS).

RESULTS

At the time of anal sacculectomy, 19 (68%) dogs underwent concurrent iliosacral lymph node extirpation, including 17 of 18 (94%) dogs with suspected nodal metastasis preoperatively. Five (18%) dogs experienced grade 2 intraoperative complications. Ten (36%) dogs experienced postoperative complications, including 1 grade 3 and 1 grade 4 complication. No dogs had permanent fecal incontinence, tenesmus, or anal stenosis. Nineteen dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy, radiation, or both. Local recurrence occurred in 37% of dogs. Dogs with lymph node metastasis at surgery were more likely than dogs without metastasis to develop new/progressive lymph node metastasis (10/17 [59%] vs 0/10 [0%]; P = .003) and distant metastasis (7/17 [41%] vs 0/10 [0%]; P = .026). Median PFI was 204 days (95% CI, 145 to 392). Median OS was 671 days (95% CI, 225 to upper limit not reached). Nodal metastasis at the time of surgery was associated with shorter PFI (P = .017) but not OS (P = .26). Adjuvant therapy was not associated with outcome.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs with massive AGASACA experienced prolonged survival following anal sacculectomy despite a high incidence of local recurrence and metastasis. Lymph node metastasis at the time of surgery was a negative prognostic indicator for PFI but not OS.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize in vitro coagulation status in a cohort of dogs with extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EHBO) and to evaluate these patients for hypercoagulability by means of thromboelastography.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—10 dogs with EHBO and 19 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—Partial or complete EHBO was confirmed via exploratory celiotomy. Venous blood samples were collected for evaluation of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT); fibrinogen and D-dimer concentrations; protein C and antithrombin activities; and factor VII, VIII, and XI coagulant activities in plasma as well as thromboelastography in whole blood. Thromboelastography variables were measured from the thromboelastography tracing, and a coagulation index was calculated. Thromboelastography results were compared with those of healthy control dogs previously evaluated by the same laboratory.

Results—Hypercoagulability was diagnosed in all dogs with EHBO on the basis of a high coagulation index. Thromboelastography variables, including maximal amplitude, α-angle, and coagulation index, were significantly higher, and K (clot formation time) and R (reaction time) were significantly lower in these dogs than in control dogs. All dogs with EHBO had PT and APTT within respective reference ranges. Plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen concentrations were above reference ranges in 8 and 7 dogs, respectively, and protein C and antithrombin activities were below reference ranges in 3 and 1 dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro hypercoagulability was commonly detected in dogs with naturally occurring EHBO. The traditional view of EHBO as a disease that causes hypocoagulability may need to be reconsidered.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical findings, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes in dogs undergoing extirpation of masses from the cranial mediastinum via video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and establish preliminary guidelines for case selection when considering VATS for thymectomy in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs that underwent extirpation of a cranial mediastinal mass by means of VATS at 5 academic referral hospitals from 2009 through 2014.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging results, surgical approach and duration, cytologic and histologic examination results, complications, outcome, and cause of death, when applicable.

RESULTS 16 dogs had a thymoma, 1 had thymic anaplastic carcinoma, and 1 had hemangiosarcoma. Seven had both megaesophagus and myasthenia gravis. Median approximate tumor volume was 113.1 cm3 (interquartile range, 33.5 to 313.3 cm3). Median duration of VATS was 117.5 minutes (interquartile range, 91.5 to 136.3 minutes). Conversion to an open thoracic surgical procedure was required for 2 dogs, 1 of which died during surgery. Median survival time following VATS for dogs with thymoma and concurrent myasthenia gravis and megaesophagus was 20 days. Dogs with thymoma without paraneoplastic syndrome survived for ≥ 60 days, and none of these dogs died of disease-related causes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE VATS appeared to be an acceptable approach for extirpation of masses from the cranial mediastinum in dogs under certain conditions. Dogs with myasthenia gravis and megaesophagus had a poor postoperative outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association