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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether high liver enzyme activities were negatively associated with outcome in sick neonatal foals as compared with foals that did not have high liver enzyme activities.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—147 foals < 30 days old with high γ-glutamyltransferase activity, high sorbitol dehydrogenase activity, or both (case foals) and 263 foals < 30 days old with γ-glutamyltransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities within reference limits (control foals).

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, and results of hematologic and serum biochemical analyses performed at the time of admission to a veterinary medical teaching hospital.

Results—Case foals were significantly more likely to die or be euthanized, compared with control foals (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 3.85). Case foals were significantly more likely than control foals to have sepsis, and septic foals were significantly less likely to survive than were nonseptic foals. For case foals, other factors associated with a greater likelihood of nonsurvival were higher anion gap and higher logarithm of aspartate aminotransferase activity. When sepsis status was controlled for, the presence of high liver enzyme activities was not significantly associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that high liver enzyme activities were common in sick neonatal foals, especially foals with sepsis. Foals with high liver enzyme activities were more likely to be septic, and septic foals were less likely to survive than were foals without sepsis. However, high liver enzyme activities alone were not a useful negative prognostic indicator.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of complications and identify risk factors associated with development of complications following routine castration of equids.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—311 horses, 10 mules, and 3 donkeys.

Procedures—Medical records of equids undergoing routine castration were reviewed. Age, breed, surgical techniques (closed vs semiclosed castration and use of ligatures), anesthesia method (general IV anesthesia vs standing sedation with local anesthesia) and repeated administration of IV anesthetic agents, administration of antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs, and details regarding development, management, and outcome of complications were recorded. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Associations between additional doses of anesthetic agents during surgery and development of complications were analyzed with a Jonckheere-Terpstra test.

Results—33 of 324 (10.2%) equids developed a complication after surgery; 32 recovered and 1 was euthanized because of eventration. Equids that underwent semiclosed castration had significantly higher odds of developing a complication (OR, 4.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.09 to 10.6) than did those that underwent closed castration. Equids that received additional doses of anesthetic agents to maintain adequate general anesthesia developed complications more frequently than those that did not require this treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incidence of complications was low, and most evaluated variables were not significantly associated with development of complications following castration in equids. However, findings suggested that the choice of surgical technique (closed vs semiclosed) is an important factor in this regard. Future studies should investigate whether duration of surgery is associated with complications following castration in equids.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess incidence of incisional infection in horses following management with 1 of 3 protective dressings after exploratory celiotomy for treatment of acute signs of abdominal pain (ie, colic) and determine the risk of complications associated with each wound management approach.

DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled study.

ANIMALS 85 horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were assigned to 3 groups. After standardized abdominal closure, a sterile cotton towel (group 1) or polyhexamethylene biguanide–impregnated dressing (group 2) was secured over the incision site with 4 or 5 cruciate sutures of nonabsorbable monofilament, or sterile gauze was placed over the site and secured with an iodine-impregnated adhesive drape (group 3). Demographic and clinicopathologic data, intraoperative and postoperative variables, and development of complications were recorded and compared among groups by statistical methods. Follow-up information was collected 30 and 90 days after surgery. Incidence and odds of incisional complications were calculated.

RESULTS 75 horses completed the study. Group 3 typically had dressing displacement necessitating removal during anesthetic recovery; dressings were in place for a mean of 44 and 31 hours for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Purulent or persistent serosanguinous incisional discharge (ie, infection) was detected in 11 of 75 (15%) horses (2/24, 0/26, and 9/25 from groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Odds of incisional complications were significantly greater for group 3 than for groups 1 or 2.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that risk of infection after celiotomy for treatment of colic is lower for incisions covered with sterile towels or polyhexamethylene biguanide–impregnated dressings secured with sutures than for incisions covered with gauze secured with iodine-impregnated adhesive drapes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of stress in cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) by evaluating bladder permeability, sympathetic nervous system function, and urine cortisol:creatinine (C:Cr) ratios during periods of stress and after environmental enrichment.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—13 cats with FIC and 12 healthy cats.

Procedure—Cats subjected to an acute-onset moderate stressor for 8 days received IV injections of fluorescein. Serum fluorescein concentrations were determined and compared with those of controls to evaluate bladder permeability, and urine C:Cr ratios were compared to evaluate function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were analyzed in a subset of cats. After 8 days of moderate stress, cats were moved to an enriched environment, and tests were repeated after 21 days.

Results—Serum fluorescein concentrations were significantly higher in cats with FIC at all time points. In the cats in which plasma catecholamine concentrations were determined, concentrations of dihydroxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine, and dihyroxyphenylglycol were significantly higher in cats with FIC at all time points, whereas no differences in urine C:Cr ratio between groups were observed.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cats with FIC appeared to have altered bladder permeability, most notably during the period of initial stress. The increase in plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine concentration suggests that there may be stress-induced increase in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in catecholamine synthesis. In contrast, no effects of stress on C:Cr ratios were observed, which suggests there was dissociation between the sympathetic nervous system and HPA-axis responses to stress.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination and 3 chromogen tests for detection of occult blood in cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) excrement.

Animals—20 adult cockatiels.

Procedures—Pooled blood from birds was divided into whole blood and lysate aliquots. Excrement was mixed with each aliquot in vitro to yield 6 hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations (range, 0.375 to 12.0 mg of Hb/g of excrement). For the in vivo portion of the study, birds were serially gavaged with each aliquot separately at 5 doses of Hb (range, 2.5 to 40 mg/kg). Three chromogen tests and cytologic examination were used to test excrement samples for occult blood. Sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement were calculated.

Results—In vitro specificity ranged from 85%to 100% for the 3 chromogen tests and was 100% for cytologic examination. Sensitivity was 0% to 35% for cytologic examination and 100% for the 3 chromogen tests on samples containing ≥ 1.5 mg of Hb/g of excrement. In vivo specificity was 100%, 90%, 65%, and 45% for cytologic examination and the 3 chromogen tests, respectively. Sensitivity was 0% to 5% for cytologic examination and ≥ 75% for all 3 chromogen tests after birds received doses of Hb ≥ 20 mg/kg. Observer agreement was lowest for cytologic examination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chromogen tests were more useful than cytologic examination for detection of occult blood in cockatiel excrement. The best combination of sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement was obtained by use of a chromogen test.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum and CSF of healthy horses following administration of supplemental vitamin E in feed.

Animals—10 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses were allocated to receive supplemental d-α-tocopherol (1,000 U/d [group A; n = 5] or 10,000 U/d [group B; 5]) in feed for 10 days. Blood samples were collected before (baseline), during, and at intervals for 10 days after discontinuation of vitamin E administration for assessment of serum α-tocopherol concentration. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected prior to and 24 hours after cessation of vitamin E administration. α-Tocopherol concentrations in serum and CSF samples were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography; changes in those values during the treatment period were compared between groups, and the relationship of serum and CSF α-tocopherol concentrations was evaluated.

Results—In both groups, serum α-tocopherol concentration increased significantly from baseline during vitamin E administration; values in group B were significantly greater than those in group A during and after treatment. At the end of vitamin E administration, CSF α-tocopherol concentration was not significantly greater than the baseline value in either group; however, the increase in CSF concentration was significant when the group data were combined and analyzed. Serum and CSF α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly correlated at baseline for all horses, but were not strongly correlated after 10 days of vitamin E administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy horses, daily oral administration of supplemental vitamin E in feed resulted in increases in serum and CSF α-tocopherol concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify associations among change in body weight, behavioral stress score, food intake score, and development of upper respiratory tract infection (URI) among cats admitted to an animal shelter.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—60 adult cats admitted to an animal shelter.

Procedures—Body weight was measured on days 0 (intake), 7, 14, and 21. Behavioral stress and food intake were scored daily for the first 7 days; cats were monitored daily for URI.

Results—49 of the 60 (82%) cats lost weight during at least 1 week while in the shelter. Fifteen (25%) cats lost ≥ 10% of their body weight while in the shelter. Thirty-five of the 60 (58%) cats developed URI prior to exiting the shelter, and only 4 cats remained at least 21 days without developing URI. Cats with high stress scores during the first week were 5.6 times as likely to develop URI as were cats with low stress scores. Food intake and stress scores were negatively correlated (r = −0.98).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats admitted to an animal shelter were likely to lose weight while in the shelter and likely to develop URI, and that cats that had high stress scores were more likely to develop URI.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine how frequently Malassezia spp were identified on the periocular skin of dogs and assess the respective associations between the presence of Malassezia spp on the periocular skin and blepharitis, ocular discharge, and the application of ophthalmic medications.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—167 eyelids of 84 dogs.

Procedures—Samples obtained from the surface of the eyelid skin by use of adhesive tape were evaluated cytologically for the presence of Malassezia spp. Dogs were grouped on the basis of the presence of blepharitis, nature of ocular discharge, and whether ophthalmic medications were applied, and the proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was compared among the groups.

ResultsMalassezia spp were detected in 19 samples, of which 15 were obtained from eyes without blepharitis and 14 were obtained from eyes treated with topical ophthalmic medications. The proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was significantly higher for eyes with ocular discharge than for eyes without ocular discharge, especially if that discharge was mucoid or mucopurulent, and for eyes that were treated with aqueous-based medications only or a combination of oil- and aqueous-based medications than for eyes that were not treated.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceMalassezia organisms were detected on the periocular skin of 3 of 56 (5%) clinically normal dogs. Malassezia organisms were also frequently found on the periocular skin of dogs that had mucoid or mucopurulent ocular discharge or that were administered topical aqueous-based ophthalmic medications, and the periocular skin of these dogs should be cytologically evaluated for Malassezia organisms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1304–1308)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare dental radiographic findings in cats with and without feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS).

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—101 cats with FCGS (cases) and 101 cats with other oral diseases (controls).

Procedures—Controls were age- and treatment date–matched with cases. Conventional full-mouth dental radiographic views were evaluated for distribution, pattern, and severity of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis), tooth resorption, buccal bone expansion, tooth fractures, and retained roots.

Results—All cases and 77 (76%) controls had periodontitis; differences in extent and severity of periodontitis were significant, with semigeneralized or generalized and moderate or severe periodontitis in 78 (77%) and 93 (92%) cases, respectively, and 28 (28%) and 38 (38%) controls, respectively. The pattern of alveolar bone loss in cases was dominated by horizontal bone loss, with a nonsignificant increase in vertical bone loss, compared with that of controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have external inflammatory root resorption (49 [49%] vs 25 [25%]) and retained roots (57 [56%] vs 28 [28%]). Fewer dental fractures occurred in cases (14 [14%]) than in controls (35 [35%]). There were no differences between cases and controls in breed, sex, or presence of feline resorptive lesions or buccal bone expansion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that FCGS was associated with more widely distributed and severe periodontitis, with a higher prevalence of external inflammatory root resorption and retained roots than other oral diseases. Full-mouth radiographic views are indicated for cats with FCGS to diagnose the extent of associated periodontitis, reveal external inflammatory root resorption, and identify retained roots.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency and types of complications, prognostic factors, and primary diseases affecting clinical outcome associated with administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—75 cats that received TPN for ≥ 12 hours.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, problems at initial evaluation, physical examination findings, weight and changes in weight while receiving TPN, duration in the hospital before initiation of TPN, the type of TPN catheter used, duration of TPN administration, and final diagnosis. Laboratory results obtained immediately prior to TPN and at 24 and 96 hours following initiation of TPN administration were compared.

Results—Reports of weight loss at initial evaluation, hyperglycemia at 24 hours, or diagnosis of chronic renal failure were significantly associated with increased mortality rate. Greater serum albumin concentrations prior to and at 96 hours following TPN administration were significantly associated with decreased mortality rate. Mechanical and septic complications were infrequent and not associated with increased mortality rate. Most cats had multiple diseases. The overall mortality rate was 52%; among 75 cats, 36 recovered, 23 were euthanatized, and 16 died as a result of their primary illness or complications associated with their illness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated high mortality rate in cats maintained on TPN that had multiple concurrent diseases associated with a poor prognosis. Indicators of poor prognosis included a history of weight loss, hyperglycemia at 24 hours following TPN administration, hypoalbuminemia, and chronic renal failure. (J Am Vet med Assoc 2004;225:242–250)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association