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Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for rectal tears in horses; assess the effect of initiating cause on tear location, size, and distance from anus; and determine short-term survival rate among horses with various grades of rectal tears.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—99 horses.

Procedures—Medical records for horses with a rectal tear were reviewed, and data including age; sex; breed; cause, location, and size of the tear and its distance from the anus; tear grade; treatment; and outcome (short-term survival [ie, survival to discharge from the hospital] vs nonsurvival) were recorded. Data for age, sex, and breed of horses with rectal tears were compared with data for all horses evaluated at the hospital during the same interval to determine risk factors for rectal tears.

Results—Arabians, American Miniature Horses, mares, and horses > 9 years of age were more likely to develop a rectal tear than other breeds, males, or younger horses. Dystocia had a significant influence on rectal tear size. Location of a rectal tear and its distance from the anus were not associated with cause. Applied treatments for grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal tears were effective, unlike treatments for grade 4 rectal tears. Irrespective of treatment, the overall short-term survival rate among horses with grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 rectal tears was 100%, 100%, 38%, and 2%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate identification of risk factors could help practitioners and owners implement adequate measures to prevent the development of rectal tears in horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare clinical, microbiologic, and clinicopathologic findings among horses infected with Clostridium difficile that had toxin A in their feces, horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A in their feces, and horses with diarrhea that were negative for C difficile infection.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—292 horses and foals with diarrhea.

Procedures—Feces were submitted for microbial culture and tested for the C difficile antigen glutamate dehydrogenase and for toxin A with a commercial ELISA.

Results—Horses with toxin A in their feces had higher band neutrophil count, rectal temperature, hospitalization time prior to the onset of diarrhea, and total hospitalization time than did horses without evidence of C difficile infection, and 32 of the 33 (97%) horses with toxin A in their feces had received antimicrobials prior to the onset of diarrhea. Horses with toxin A in their feces had a significantly higher mortality rate than did horses negative for toxin A in their feces. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA for detection of C difficile antigen were 93% and 88%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following direct plating, and 66% and 93%, when assay results were compared with results of microbial culture following broth enrichment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided some evidence that horses positive for toxin A had more severe clinical disease than did horses with evidence of C difficile infection that were negative for toxin A and horses with diarrhea without evidence of C difficile infection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether a synthetic feline facial pheromone product would decrease stress scores and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) incidence in shelter-housed cats.

DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.

ANIMALS 336 stray, feral, owner-relinquished, or legally impounded cats at 2 animal shelters in northern California.

PROCEDURES 5 cat holding rooms (3 at shelter A and 2 at shelter B) were used. A diffuser containing either synthetic pheromone or placebo was randomly assigned to each room, and cats were exposed for a 21-day period. Data collected on each cat included signalment, daily stress scores, and daily URI incidence. After 21 days, diffusers were removed for a 7-day washout period. The type of diffuser in each room was switched, and data were collected for another 21 days. Findings were statistically compared between exposure types and other groupings.

RESULTS Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed no significant difference between exposure (pheromone or placebo) and URI incidence. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression revealed no significant relationship between exposure and daily stress scores. Three covariates had significant ORs: number of days in holding (OR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.84), owner-relinquished versus stray (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 8.94), and feral versus adult cat room at shelter A (OR, 11.10; 95% CI, 4.47 to 27.60).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE No evidence was found that the evaluated synthetic feline facial pheromone product had any effect on stress scores or URI incidence in shelter-housed cats. Therefore, other established methods for stress and URI reduction should be used in shelter settings.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare dental radiographic findings in cats with and without feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS).

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—101 cats with FCGS (cases) and 101 cats with other oral diseases (controls).

Procedures—Controls were age- and treatment date–matched with cases. Conventional full-mouth dental radiographic views were evaluated for distribution, pattern, and severity of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis), tooth resorption, buccal bone expansion, tooth fractures, and retained roots.

Results—All cases and 77 (76%) controls had periodontitis; differences in extent and severity of periodontitis were significant, with semigeneralized or generalized and moderate or severe periodontitis in 78 (77%) and 93 (92%) cases, respectively, and 28 (28%) and 38 (38%) controls, respectively. The pattern of alveolar bone loss in cases was dominated by horizontal bone loss, with a nonsignificant increase in vertical bone loss, compared with that of controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have external inflammatory root resorption (49 [49%] vs 25 [25%]) and retained roots (57 [56%] vs 28 [28%]). Fewer dental fractures occurred in cases (14 [14%]) than in controls (35 [35%]). There were no differences between cases and controls in breed, sex, or presence of feline resorptive lesions or buccal bone expansion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that FCGS was associated with more widely distributed and severe periodontitis, with a higher prevalence of external inflammatory root resorption and retained roots than other oral diseases. Full-mouth radiographic views are indicated for cats with FCGS to diagnose the extent of associated periodontitis, reveal external inflammatory root resorption, and identify retained roots.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess incidence of incisional infection in horses following management with 1 of 3 protective dressings after exploratory celiotomy for treatment of acute signs of abdominal pain (ie, colic) and determine the risk of complications associated with each wound management approach.

DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled study.

ANIMALS 85 horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were assigned to 3 groups. After standardized abdominal closure, a sterile cotton towel (group 1) or polyhexamethylene biguanide–impregnated dressing (group 2) was secured over the incision site with 4 or 5 cruciate sutures of nonabsorbable monofilament, or sterile gauze was placed over the site and secured with an iodine-impregnated adhesive drape (group 3). Demographic and clinicopathologic data, intraoperative and postoperative variables, and development of complications were recorded and compared among groups by statistical methods. Follow-up information was collected 30 and 90 days after surgery. Incidence and odds of incisional complications were calculated.

RESULTS 75 horses completed the study. Group 3 typically had dressing displacement necessitating removal during anesthetic recovery; dressings were in place for a mean of 44 and 31 hours for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Purulent or persistent serosanguinous incisional discharge (ie, infection) was detected in 11 of 75 (15%) horses (2/24, 0/26, and 9/25 from groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Odds of incisional complications were significantly greater for group 3 than for groups 1 or 2.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that risk of infection after celiotomy for treatment of colic is lower for incisions covered with sterile towels or polyhexamethylene biguanide–impregnated dressings secured with sutures than for incisions covered with gauze secured with iodine-impregnated adhesive drapes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare tibial plateau angle (TPA) in dogs with unilateral versus bilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture, to compare right versus left TPA in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture, and to determine whether TPA can be used to predict whether a dog with unilateral CCL rupture would subsequently rupture the contralateral CCL.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—150 dogs with unilateral (n = 58) or bilateral (92) CCL rupture.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed and TPA was recorded. Dogs with unilateral CCL rupture that were not known to have ruptured the contralateral ligament were followed up for a minimum of 2 years.

Results—Dogs with unilateral CCL rupture were significantly older (median, 7.0 years) than dogs with bilateral CCL rupture (median, 4.5 years). Median TPA for dogs with unilateral CCL rupture (26°) was not significantly different from median TPA for dogs with bilateral rupture (27° in both the right and left limbs), and right and left TPAs were not significantly different in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture. There was no correlation between TPA and the time interval between diagnosis of the initial and subsequent CCL ruptures in dogs with bilateral CCL rupture.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that TPA in the range studied (mostly < 35°) was not a useful predictor of contralateral CCL rupture among dogs with unilateral CCL rupture, although age may be a risk factor for development of bilateral CCL rupture. The incidence of bilateral CCL rupture may be higher than previously reported.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe ultrasonographic landmarks for use in collection of CSF from the lumbosacral region in equids.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—37 equids (27 with neurologic disease and 10 with nonneurologic disease).

Procedures—Standing equids (n = 17) were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.006 to 0.01 mg/kg [0.003 to 0.005 mg/lb], IV) followed by butorphanol tartrate (0.01 mg/kg, IV) and restrained with a nose twitch for collection of CSF. The CSF was collected from 20 laterally recumbent equids (10 sedated and 10 immediately after euthanasia). Anatomic landmarks were identified ultrasonographically. Height at the dorsal point of the shoulders, body weight, depth of the spinal needle, number of attempts to collect CSF, and cytologic evaluation of CSF were recorded.

Results—Lumbosacral puncture cranial to the cranial border of the most superficial location of both tuber sacrale along the midline was consistently successful for CSF collection (35/37 equids). Two horses had anatomic abnormalities that precluded CSF collection. Mean number of attempts to collect CSF per animal was 1.1. Height and body weight were strongly correlated with needle depth for CSF collection. Pelvic and sacral displacement was observed in several laterally recumbent animals, which resulted in discrepancies of the midline between the cranial and caudal aspects of the vertebral column. In most equids, the spinal needle was aligned on the midline of the caudal aspect of the vertebral column.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography was a useful aid for collection of CSF from the lumbosacral space and decreased the risk of repeated trauma and contamination in equids.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine trends in urolith composition in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—5,230 uroliths.

Procedures—The laboratory database for the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched for all urolith submissions from cats from 1985 through 2004. Submission forms were reviewed, and each cat's age, sex, breed, and stone location were recorded.

Results—Minerals identified included struvite, calcium oxalate, urates, dried solidified blood, apatite, brushite, cystine, silica, potassium magnesium pyrophosphate, xanthine, and newberyite. During the past 20 years, the ratio of calcium oxalate stones to struvite stones increased significantly. When only the last 3 years of the study period were included, the percentage of struvite stones (44%) was higher than the percentage of calcium oxa-late stones (40%). The most common location for both types of uroliths was the bladder. The number of calcium oxalate-containing calculi in the upper portion of the urinary tract increased significantly during the study period. The number of apatite uroliths declined sig-nificantly and that of dried solidified blood stones increased significantly, compared with all other stone types. No significant difference in the number of urate stones was detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The increasing proportion of calcium oxalate uroliths was in accordance with findings from other studies and could be a result of alterations in cats' diets. However, the decreased percentage of calcium oxalate calculi and increased percentage of struvite calculi observed in the last 3 years may portend a change in the fre-quency of this type of urolith.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the immediately antecedent cause of secondary glaucoma and the prevalence of secondary glaucoma with anterior uveitis or lens dislocation in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—156 dogs with secondary glaucoma.

Procedures—Cause of glaucoma was determined from records. Breed, age, sex, and neuter status of all dogs with secondary glaucoma were compared with the general hospital population. The prevalence of secondary glaucoma in dogs with a primary diagnosis of lens dislocation or anterior uveitis during the same period was determined.

Results—Secondary glaucoma was diagnosed in 156 of 2,257 (6.9%) dogs examined because of ophthalmic disease and was bilateral in 33 (21.2%) of those dogs. In 31 (94%) bilaterally affected dogs, the antecedent cause was the same in both eyes. Common causes of secondary glaucoma were non-surgical anterior uveitis (44.9%), anterior uveitis associated with prior phacoemulsification (15.8%), and lens dislocation (15.2%). Parson Russell Terriers, Poodles, Boston Terriers, Cocker Spaniels, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and Australian Cattle Dogs had diagnoses of secondary glaucoma more often than expected, compared with the reference population. Age, sex, neuter status, and laterality were not associated with secondary glaucoma. The prevalence of secondary glaucoma in dogs with lens dislocation or uveitis was 15% or 17%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glaucoma develops secondary to many intraocular diseases, particularly uveitis and lens dislocation. Diagnosis of these diseases should prompt frequent monitoring of intraocular pressure, regardless of signalment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether high liver enzyme activities were negatively associated with outcome in sick neonatal foals as compared with foals that did not have high liver enzyme activities.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—147 foals < 30 days old with high γ-glutamyltransferase activity, high sorbitol dehydrogenase activity, or both (case foals) and 263 foals < 30 days old with γ-glutamyltransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities within reference limits (control foals).

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, and results of hematologic and serum biochemical analyses performed at the time of admission to a veterinary medical teaching hospital.

Results—Case foals were significantly more likely to die or be euthanized, compared with control foals (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 3.85). Case foals were significantly more likely than control foals to have sepsis, and septic foals were significantly less likely to survive than were nonseptic foals. For case foals, other factors associated with a greater likelihood of nonsurvival were higher anion gap and higher logarithm of aspartate aminotransferase activity. When sepsis status was controlled for, the presence of high liver enzyme activities was not significantly associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that high liver enzyme activities were common in sick neonatal foals, especially foals with sepsis. Foals with high liver enzyme activities were more likely to be septic, and septic foals were less likely to survive than were foals without sepsis. However, high liver enzyme activities alone were not a useful negative prognostic indicator.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association