Objective—To determine how frequently Malassezia spp were identified on the periocular skin of dogs and assess the respective associations between the presence of Malassezia spp on the periocular skin and blepharitis, ocular discharge, and the application of ophthalmic medications.
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—167 eyelids of 84 dogs.
Procedures—Samples obtained from the surface of the eyelid skin by use of adhesive tape were evaluated cytologically for the presence of Malassezia spp. Dogs were grouped on the basis of the presence of blepharitis, nature of ocular discharge, and whether ophthalmic medications were applied, and the proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was compared among the groups.
Results—Malassezia spp were detected in 19 samples, of which 15 were obtained from eyes without blepharitis and 14 were obtained from eyes treated with topical ophthalmic medications. The proportion of samples with Malassezia spp was significantly higher for eyes with ocular discharge than for eyes without ocular discharge, especially if that discharge was mucoid or mucopurulent, and for eyes that were treated with aqueous-based medications only or a combination of oil- and aqueous-based medications than for eyes that were not treated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Malassezia organisms were detected on the periocular skin of 3 of 56 (5%) clinically normal dogs. Malassezia organisms were also frequently found on the periocular skin of dogs that had mucoid or mucopurulent ocular discharge or that were administered topical aqueous-based ophthalmic medications, and the periocular skin of these dogs should be cytologically evaluated for Malassezia organisms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;244:1304–1308)
Objective—To compare dental radiographic findings in cats with and without feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—101 cats with FCGS (cases) and 101 cats with other oral diseases (controls).
Procedures—Controls were age- and treatment date–matched with cases. Conventional full-mouth dental radiographic views were evaluated for distribution, pattern, and severity of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis), tooth resorption, buccal bone expansion, tooth fractures, and retained roots.
Results—All cases and 77 (76%) controls had periodontitis; differences in extent and severity of periodontitis were significant, with semigeneralized or generalized and moderate or severe periodontitis in 78 (77%) and 93 (92%) cases, respectively, and 28 (28%) and 38 (38%) controls, respectively. The pattern of alveolar bone loss in cases was dominated by horizontal bone loss, with a nonsignificant increase in vertical bone loss, compared with that of controls. Cases were more likely than controls to have external inflammatory root resorption (49 [49%] vs 25 [25%]) and retained roots (57 [56%] vs 28 [28%]). Fewer dental fractures occurred in cases (14 [14%]) than in controls (35 [35%]). There were no differences between cases and controls in breed, sex, or presence of feline resorptive lesions or buccal bone expansion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that FCGS was associated with more widely distributed and severe periodontitis, with a higher prevalence of external inflammatory root resorption and retained roots than other oral diseases. Full-mouth radiographic views are indicated for cats with FCGS to diagnose the extent of associated periodontitis, reveal external inflammatory root resorption, and identify retained roots.
Objective—To determine frequency and types of
complications, prognostic factors, and primary diseases
affecting clinical outcome associated with
administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in
Animals—75 cats that received TPN for ≥ 12 hours.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and
information was obtained on signalment, history,
problems at initial evaluation, physical examination
findings, weight and changes in weight while receiving
TPN, duration in the hospital before initiation of
TPN, the type of TPN catheter used, duration of TPN
administration, and final diagnosis. Laboratory results
obtained immediately prior to TPN and at 24 and 96
hours following initiation of TPN administration were
Results—Reports of weight loss at initial evaluation,
hyperglycemia at 24 hours, or diagnosis of chronic
renal failure were significantly associated with
increased mortality rate. Greater serum albumin concentrations
prior to and at 96 hours following TPN
administration were significantly associated with
decreased mortality rate. Mechanical and septic complications
were infrequent and not associated with
increased mortality rate. Most cats had multiple diseases.
The overall mortality rate was 52%; among 75
cats, 36 recovered, 23 were euthanatized, and 16 died
as a result of their primary illness or complications
associated with their illness.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
high mortality rate in cats maintained on TPN that had
multiple concurrent diseases associated with a poor
prognosis. Indicators of poor prognosis included a history
of weight loss, hyperglycemia at 24 hours following
TPN administration, hypoalbuminemia, and chronic renal
failure. (J Am Vet med Assoc 2004;225:242–250)
Objective—To evaluate results of root canal treatment
Sample Population—127 tooth roots in 64 dogs.
Procedure—Radiographs obtained before surgery,
immediately after surgery, and during follow-up
examinations after surgery were evaluated by 2 individuals.
Treatment was considered successful if the
periodontal ligament space was normal and possible
preoperative root resorption, if present, had ceased.
Treatment was considered to show no evidence of
failure if possible preoperative root resorption had
ceased but a preexisting periapical lesion had
remained the same or only decreased in size and not
complete resolved. Treatment was considered to
have failed if a periapical lesion or root resorption
developed subsequent to endodontic treatment, if a
preexisting periapical lesion had increased in size, or
if possible preoperative root resorption appeared to
continue after endodontic treatment.
Results—Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 60 months
(mean, 13 months). Treatment was classified as successful
for 87 (69%) roots, as showing no evidence of
failure for 33 (26%) roots, and as having failed for 7
(6%) roots. The success rate was lower for canine
teeth than for maxillary fourth premolar teeth. Roots
with a preexisting periapical lucency or preexisting
root resorption had lower success rates. The use of
intracanal medication and the method and quality of
obturation were not associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that root canal treatment offers a viable option
for salvage of periodontally sound but endodontically
diseased teeth in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine which dog breeds are at low
and high risk for developing diabetes mellitus (DM).
Animals—Hospital population of 221 dogs with DM
and 42,882 dogs without DM during 5.5 years.
Procedure—165 breeds (including a mixed-breed category)
were represented in the hospital population.
Breed-specific expected numbers of dogs with DM
were calculated by multiplying the proportion of all
dogs admitted to the hospital that were determined
to have DM during the study period by the breed-specific
totals during the study period. Breeds or breed
groups evaluated in the analysis (n = 20) were restricted
to those that had a combined observed and
expected count > 5 to document breeds at low and
high risk for developing DM. Proportionate changes in
the risk of developing DM by breed were calculated
and presented using exact odds ratios, 95% confidence
intervals, and P values. Mixed-breed dogs
were chosen as the reference breed.
Results—Samoyeds, Miniature Schnauzers, Miniature
Poodles, Pugs, and Toy Poodles were at high risk
for developing DM. Dog breeds found to be at low
risk for developing DM were German Shepherd Dog,
Golden Retriever, and American Pit Bull Terrier.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The finding
that certain dog breeds are at low or high risk for
developing DM suggests that some genetic defects
may predispose dogs to development of DM, whereas
other genetic factors may protect dogs from development
of DM. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a synthetic feline facial pheromone product would decrease stress scores and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) incidence in shelter-housed cats.
DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.
ANIMALS 336 stray, feral, owner-relinquished, or legally impounded cats at 2 animal shelters in northern California.
PROCEDURES 5 cat holding rooms (3 at shelter A and 2 at shelter B) were used. A diffuser containing either synthetic pheromone or placebo was randomly assigned to each room, and cats were exposed for a 21-day period. Data collected on each cat included signalment, daily stress scores, and daily URI incidence. After 21 days, diffusers were removed for a 7-day washout period. The type of diffuser in each room was switched, and data were collected for another 21 days. Findings were statistically compared between exposure types and other groupings.
RESULTS Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed no significant difference between exposure (pheromone or placebo) and URI incidence. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression revealed no significant relationship between exposure and daily stress scores. Three covariates had significant ORs: number of days in holding (OR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.84), owner-relinquished versus stray (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.18 to 8.94), and feral versus adult cat room at shelter A (OR, 11.10; 95% CI, 4.47 to 27.60).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE No evidence was found that the evaluated synthetic feline facial pheromone product had any effect on stress scores or URI incidence in shelter-housed cats. Therefore, other established methods for stress and URI reduction should be used in shelter settings.
Objective—To determine usefulness of the test for
proteins induced by vitamin K absence or antagonism
(PIVKA) to identify anticoagulant-poisoned dogs, compared
with one-stage prothrombin time (OSPT) and
activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests.
Procedure—Comparisons of results of PIVKA, OSPT,
and APTT measurements in dogs with anticoagulant
poisoning, hepatic disease, disseminated intravascular
coagulation, other blood-related disorders,
immune-mediated diseases, or other chronic and
acute diseases were performed. Median, quartile,
and range values were determined.
Results—PIVKA tests with a 150-second critical
value had > 98% specificity and > 90% sensitivity for
diagnosis of anticoagulant poisoning versus > 99%
specificity and > 79% sensitivity with a 300-second
critical value. Comparison of PIVKA values among
diagnostic groups revealed significant differences
between dogs with anticoagulant poisoning and all
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PIVKA
test with a 150-second critical value is diagnostically
useful for distinguishing anticoagulant poisoning
from other coagulopathies. Severe liver disease can
cause false-positive results. Administration of vitamin
K1 or early evaluation (within a few hours of
ingesting anticoagulant) may cause false-negative
results. Dogs with PIVKA test values > 150 seconds
and clinical signs of anticoagulant poisoning can confidently
be considered to have anticoagulant poisoning
because of the high test sensitivity and specificity.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:194–198)
Objective—To evaluate serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone
(17-OHP) concentration measurement after
administration of ACTH for use in the diagnosis of
hyperadrenocorticism in dogs.
Procedure—Serum 17-OHP concentrations were
measured before and after ACTH stimulation in 53
healthy dogs to establish reference values for this
study. Affected dogs had pituitary-dependent (n = 40)
or adrenal tumor–associated (12) hyperadrenocorticism
or potentially had atypical hyperadrenocorticism
(5; diagnosis confirmed in 1 dog). In affected dogs,
frequency interval and borderline and abnormal
serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation
were determined. Serum cortisol concentrations
were assessed via low-dose dexamethasone suppression
and ACTH stimulation tests.
Results—In healthy dogs, serum 17-OHP concentration
frequency intervals were grouped by sex and
reproductive status (defined as < 95th percentile).
Frequency intervals of serum 17-OHP concentrations
after ACTH stimulation were < 7.7, < 2.0, < 3.2, and
< 3.4 ng/mL (< 23.3, < 6.1, < 9.7, and < 10.3 nmol/L)
for sexually intact and neutered females and sexually
intact and neutered males, respectively. In 53 dogs
with confirmed hyperadrenocorticism, serum cortisol
concentrations after ACTH stimulation and 8 hours
after administration of dexamethasone and serum 17-
OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation were considered
borderline or abnormal in 79%, 93%, and
69% of dogs, respectively. Two of 5 dogs considered
to have atypical hyperadrenocorticism had abnormal
serum 17-OHP concentrations after ACTH stimulation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum 17-OHP
concentration measurement after ACTH stimulation
may be useful in the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism
in dogs when other test results are equivocal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1095–1101)
Objective—To determine whether histopathologic
changes are detectable in grossly normal medial
menisci from dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate
Sample Population—40 medial menisci from dogs
with rupture of the CCL and 20 medial menisci from
control dogs without stifle joint disease.
Procedure—Data evaluated included age, duration of
clinical signs, and whether rupture of the CCL was
complete or incomplete. Three groups (n = 20/group)
were also compared on the basis of 5 histologic criteria;
group-1 menisci appeared grossly normal and
were obtained from dogs with naturally occurring rupture
of the CCL, group-2 menisci were grossly abnormal
and were also obtained from dogs with naturally
occurring CCL ruptures, and group-3 menisci were
collected at postmortem from dogs without stifle
joint disease that were of similar age and weight as
dogs in groups 1 and 2.
Results—Group-2 menisci were significantly different
from group-1 and -3 menisci in all histologic criteria.
Group-1 menisci were significantly different from control
menisci in only 1 of the 5 histologic criteria (cartilage
differentiation). Dogs that were ≥ 3 years old had
significantly more surface cellularity than did dogs
that were < 3 years old. A significant difference was
not detected between groups 1 and 2 with regard to
completeness of rupture.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Histologic
changes in meniscal cartilage correlate with gross
appearance of the cartilage at time of surgery for rupture
of the CCL. On the basis of minimal histologic
changes, routine removal of grossly normal menisci
does not appear to be warranted. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).
Animals—6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks.
Procedures—A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco2 measured every 5 minutes plus Paco2 and Pao2 and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period.
Results—Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco2 differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco2 position × time interaction was significant and Petco2 was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco2. The Paco2 in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao2, suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O2 transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.