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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of orally administered aspirin to mitigate 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced respiratory tract disease and reduced rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—244 beef cattle.

Procedure—In a masked, randomized, controlled field trial, calves were untreated (controls) or received a single orally administered dose of aspirin (31.2 g) on entry into a feedlot. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured on days 0, 3, and 6. Rumen 3MI concentration was measured on day 3. Cattle were observed daily for clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Lungs were evaluated at slaughter for gross pulmonary lesions.

Results—Mean daily gain (MDG) in cattle treated with aspirin, compared with control cattle, was 0.06 kg greater in the backgrounding unit and 0.03 kg greater for the overall feeding period. Neither serum nor rumen 3MI concentrations appeared to modify this effect. Cattle treated with aspirin were more likely to be treated for respiratory tract disease. Mortality rate, gross pulmonary lesions, and serum and rumen 3MI concentrations were similar between groups. Increased rumen 3MI concentration was associated with a small difference in risk of lung fibrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cattle given a single orally administered dose of aspirin on feedlot entry had higher MDG in the backgrounding unit and for the overall feeding period, but this finding could not be attributed to mitigation of effects of 3MI. This may have been influenced by low peak 3MI production and slow rates of gain. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1209–1213)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether immunity against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) mitigates the effects of 3-methylindole (3MI) on occurrence of bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) and rate of gain in feedlot cattle.

Animals—254 mixed-breed beef cattle.

Procedure—Cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at the time of arrival at the feedlot. One group was vaccinated with an inactivated BRSV vaccine, another was vaccinated with a modified-live BRSV vaccine, and the third was maintained as unvaccinated control cattle. On days 0 and 28, serum BRSV antibody concentrations were measured, using serum neutralizing and ELISA techniques. Serum 3MI concentrations were measured at feedlot arrival and 3 days later. Cattle were monitored for development of BRD. At slaughter, lungs were evaluated grossly for chronic lesions.

Results—Higher serum 3MI concentrations early in the feeding period were associated with lower mean daily gain. Control cattle were more likely to be treated for BRD after day 3, compared with cattle vaccinated with the modified-live BRSV vaccine. Humoral immunity against BRSV did not appear to modify the effect of 3MI on development of BRD or mean daily gain.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that abrogating the effects of 3MI and BRSV infection may improve the health and growth performance of feedlot cattle. However, in this study, immunity against BRSV did not appear to protect against the potential synergism between 3MI and BRSV infection, possibly because of the slow rates of gain of cattle included in the study or timing of sample collection. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1309–1314)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of feeding aspirin and supplemental vitamin E on growth performance, lung lesions, plasma concentrations of 3-methylindole (3MI), and 3-methyleneindolenine (3MEIN)-adduct concentrations in blood and pulmonary tissues of feedlot cattle.

Animals—256 crossbred steers; 64 cattle were used in experiment 1 and 192 cattle were used in experiment 2.

Procedures—A 2 × 2 factorial design was used for each experiment. Treatment factors were aspirin (0 or 3 g daily) and vitamin E (200 or 1,500 IU daily). Steers were housed in pens (8 steers/pen). Steers were slaughtered on days 59 and 138 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Lungs were grossly evaluated. Plasma 3MI concentration was determined, and 3MEIN-adduct concentrations were measured in blood and pulmonary tissues.

Results—Treatment was not associated with improvement or adverse effects on weight gain, drymatter intake, or feed efficiency in experiment 2. In experiment 1, 36 of 63 (57.1%) steers had lung lesions. Lesions were not associated with treatment or concentrations of 3MI and 3MEIN-adduct. Plasma 3MI concentration and concentrations of 3MEINadduct in blood and pulmonary tissues were 3.11 µg/mL, 0.51 U/µg of protein, and 0.49 U/µg of protein, respectively. Aspirin was associated with increased blood concentrations of 3MEIN-adduct for diets that did not contain supplemental vitamin E.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in performance of feedlot steers were not associated with treatment diet. It is possible that concurrent exposure of feedlot cattle to other factors typically associated with development of respiratory tract disease would affect these findings. (Am J Vet Res 2002:63:1641–1647)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of 4 commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in early-weaned beef calves.

ANIMALS 54 early-weaned beef steers (median age, 95 days).

PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and administered PBSS (group A [control]; n = 11) or 1 of 4 commercially available modified-live virus vaccines that contained antigens against BHV1, BVDV types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (groups B [11], C [10], D [11], and E [11]). Forty-five days after vaccination, calves were exposed simultaneously to 6 cattle persistently infected with BVDV and 8 calves acutely infected with BHV1 for 28 days (challenge exposure). For each calf, serum antibody titers against BVDV and BHV1 were determined before vaccination and before and after challenge exposure. Virus isolation was performed on nasal secretions, serum, and WBCs at predetermined times during the 28-day challenge exposure.

RESULTS None of the calves developed severe clinical disease or died. Mean serum anti-BHV1 antibody titers did not differ significantly among the treatment groups at any time and gradually declined during the study. Mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers appeared to be negatively associated with the incidence of viremia and BVDV shedding. The unvaccinated group (A) had the lowest mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers. The mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers for group D were generally lower than those for groups B, C, and E.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated differences in vaccine efficacy for the prevention of BVDV viremia and shedding in early-weaned beef calves.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate risk factors for development of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—251 horses admitted to The Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1992 to 1995.

Procedure—On the basis of clinical signs of neurologic disease and detection of antibody to Sarcocystis neurona or S neurona DNA in cerebrospinal fluid, a diagnosis of EPM was made for 251 horses. Two contemporaneous series of control horses were selected from horses admitted to the hospital. One control series (n = 225) consisted of horses with diseases of the neurologic system other than EPM (neurologic control horses), and the other consisted of 251 horses admitted for reasons other than nervous system diseases (nonneurologic control horses). Data were obtained from hospital records and telephone conversations. Risk factors associated with disease status were analyzed, using multivariable logistic regression.

Results—Horses ranged from 1 day to 30 years old (mean ± SD, 5.7 ± 5.2 years). Risk factors associated with an increased risk of developing EPM included age, season of admission, prior diagnosis of EPM on the premises, opossums on premises, health events prior to admission, and racing or showing as a primary use. Factors associated with a reduced risk of developing EPM included protection of feed from wildlife and proximity of a creek or river to the premises where the horse resided.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Development of EPM was associated with a number of management-related factors that can be altered to decrease the risk for the disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1174–1180)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate risk factors for use in predicting clinical improvement and survival of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM).

Design—Longitudinal epidemiologic study.

Animals—251 horses with EPM.

Procedure—Between 1992 and 1995, 251 horses with EPM were admitted to our facility. A diagnosis of EPM was made on the basis of neurologic abnormalities and detection of antibody to Sarcocystis neurona or S neurona DNA in CSF. Data were obtained from hospital records and through telephone follow-up interviews. Factors associated with clinical improvement and survival were analyzed, using multivariable logistic regression.

Results—The likelihood of clinical improvement after diagnosis of EPM was lower in horses used for breeding and pleasure activities. Treatment for EPM increased the probability that a horse would have clinical improvement. The likelihood of survival among horses with EPM was lower among horses with more severe clinical signs and higher among horses that improved after EPM was diagnosed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of horses with EPM is indicated in most situations; however, severity of clinical signs should be taken into consideration when making treatment decisions. Response to treatment is an important indicator of survival. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1181–1185)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To test the association between exposure to bovine coronavirus (BCV) and outbreaks of winter dysentery (WD) in dairy herds and to examine other risk factors for outbreaks of WD in dairy herds.

Animals

12 dairy herds in Ohio affected with WD (case herds). For each case herd, 2 unaffected herds from the same area were concurrently used as control herds.

Procedure

A case-control study was conducted, using herds as the unit of investigation. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify risk factors for contracting disease.

Results

4 factors appeared to increase a herd's risk for WD: increase in herd prevalence of adult cows that had a fourfold or more increase in BCV serum IgG antibody titer; increase in herd prevalence of adult cows that had a fourfold or more increase in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) titer; housing cattle in tie-stall or stanchion barns rather than free-stall facilities; and use of equipment to handle manure and subsequently handle feed. The adjusted population-attributable risk for these variables was 71, 43, 53, and 31%, respectively, and 99% overall, indicating that these variables had considerable impact on WD outbreaks for the study population.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

In dairies in Ohio, recent herd exposure to BCV appeared to increase the risk for WD outbreaks. Some WD outbreaks might have been associated with acute BVDV infection. Certain housing and management practices may have increased the risk of an outbreak of WD. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:994–1001)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify exposures to etiologic agents and to identify characteristics that could explain risk of disease for adult cattle in herds affected by winter dysentery (WD).

Animals

229 lactating and nonlactating adult cattle (125 case and 104 control cattle) selected from 12 dairy herds.

Procedure

A case-control study, using multivariate conditional logistic regression and controlling for herd effects, was used to develop a model for risk factors associated with disease for each cow.

Results

Likelihood of developing disease increased as the ELISA value for bovine coronavirus (BCV) antigen detectable in feces increased (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94 for each 0.100 increase in BCV antigen ELISA value). Pregnant cattle were less likely to develop WD, compared with nonpregnant herdmates. Cows with high acute BCV antibody titers that seroresponded had greater odds of developing disease, compared with seroresponding cows with low acute titers. However, among those cows that did not serorespond, high acute antibody titers were associated with lower odds of developing the disease.

Conclusion

In herds affected by WD, ill cows were more likely to shed detectable amounts of BCV antigen in their feces, and pregnancy appeared to protect cattle from the disease. The measured interaction between BCV seroresponse and acute BCV antibody titer may be evidence of an immunopathologic condition, but could also have been attributable to dynamics of the ELISA or study design.

Clinical Relevance

Factors that explained a cow's risk for illness within WD-affected herds may have been surrogate measures for that cow's nonspecific and BCV-specific immune profile. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:986–993)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure antibody titers against bovine coronavirus (BCV), determine frequency of BCV in nasal swab specimens, and compare calves treated for bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) between those given an intranasally administered vaccine and control calves.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—414 heifer calves.

Procedure—Intranasal BCV antigen concentration and antibody titer against BCV were measured on entry to a feedlot. Calves were randomly assigned to receive 3.0 mL of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine enteric coronavirus and rotavirus or 3.0 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Calves were confined to 1 of 2 pens, depending on vaccination status, for a minimum of 17 days of observation (range, 17 to 99). Selection of calves for treatment of BRD and scoring for severity of disease were done by veterinarians unaware of treatment status.

Results—Intranasal BCV (125/407 [31%]) and serum antibody titers ≥ 20 against BCV (246/396 [62%]) were identified in calves entering the feedlot. Vaccination was associated with significant decrease in risk of treatment for BRD; intranasal BCV on entry to the feedlot was associated with increased risk of treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that control calves with intranasal BRD on entry to the feedlot and those with antibody titer < 20 were significantly more likely to be treated for BRD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data provide further evidence of an association between BCV and respiratory tract disease in feedlot calves. An intranasally administered vaccine appeared to reduce risk of treatment for BRD. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:726–731)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To compare initial titers, duration, and residual clinical protection of passively transferred bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) nasal immunoglobulin (Ig) G-1 and IgA, and serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies.

ANIMALS

40 three-month-old beef steers born either to unvaccinated or vaccinated cows.

PROCEDURES

During the last trimester of gestation, cows were assigned randomly to either vaccinated or unvaccinated groups. Calves were grouped on the basis of whether they nursed colostrum from unvaccinated dams (NO-VACC group; n = 20) versus dams vaccinated with 2 doses of an inactivated BRSV vaccine (VACC group; n = 20). At 3 months of age, calves were challenged with BRSV. Respiratory signs were scored. Nasal BRSV IgG-1 and IgA and SN antibodies were compared before and after the challenge. The presence of BRSV in nasal secretions was evaluated by reverse transcription-PCR assays.

RESULTS

Respiratory scores after BRSV challenge were similar between treatment groups. Nasal BRSV IgG-1 and SN antibodies were significantly greater in VACC calves at 48 hours of life; however, by 3 months of age, titers had decayed in both groups. Nasal BRSV IgA titers were minimal after colostrum intake and before the BRSV challenge, and increased in both groups after the challenge. The NO-VACC group had a significantly greater probability of shedding BRSV compared with VACC calves.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

At 3 months of age, titers of passively transferred BRSV antibodies in VACC and NO-VACC calves had decayed to nonprotective levels. Calves born to vaccinated dams had a decreased probability of BRSV shedding; however, this was not related to differences in SN or nasal BRSV antibody titers.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research