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  • Author or Editor: Michael R. Lappin x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate plasma glipizide concentration and its relationship to plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy cats administered glipizide orally or transdermally.

Animals—15 healthy adult laboratory-raised cats.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups (5 mg of glipizide, PO or transdermally) and a control group. Blood samples were collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and 4, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 hours after administration to determine concentrations of insulin, glucose, and glipizide.

Results—Glipizide was detected in all treated cats. Mean ± SD transdermal absorption was 20 ± 14% of oral absorption. Mean maximum glipizide concentration was reached 5.0 ± 3.5 hours after oral and 16.0 ± 4.5 hours after transdermal administration. Elimination half-life was variable (16.8 ± 12 hours orally and 15.5 ± 15.3 hours transdermally). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased in all treated cats, compared with concentrations in control cats. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower 2 to 6 hours after oral administration, compared with after transdermal application; concentrations were similar between treatment groups and significantly lower than for control cats 10 to 24 hours after treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transdermal absorption of glipizide was low and inconsistent, but analysis of our results indicated that it did affect plasma glucose concentrations. Transdermal administration of glipizide is not equivalent to oral administration. Formulation, absorption, and stability studies are required before clinical analysis can be performed. Transdermal administration of glipizide cannot be recommended for clinical use at this time. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:581–588)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To describe clinical and laboratory findings associated with cats experimentally infected by inoculation with the 2 recognized genotypes of Hemobartonella felis (small variant, Hfsm; large variant, Hflg) and to determine the response of cats to treatment with azithromycin.

Animals—18 young adult domestic shorthair cats of both sexes.

Procedures—Cats were inoculated with H felis and monitored weekly, using CBC counts and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect both genetic variants of H felis. Beginning 26 days after inoculation, 11 cats were administered azithromycin (15 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h, for 7 days).

Results—Inoculation resulted in coinfection with Hflg and Hfsm, and both variants were detected by PCR. Clinical abnormalities and anemia were most severe in Hflg- and dual-infected cats. Results of PCR and CBC were positive for H felis in 112/112 (100%) and 42/112 (37.5%), respectively, samples collected after inoculation. Administration of azithromycin had little effect on clinical variables, including anemia. All cats, regardless of treatment with azithromycin, had positive results for the PCR at the end of the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In these cats, Hflg was more pathogenic than Hfsm, and coinfection with both variants was detected. Results of the PCR were superior to results of CBC for detecting infection with H felis. Azithromycin administered at the dose and duration reported here was not efficacious for the treatment of cats with hemobartonellosis. ( Am J Vet Res 2000;62:687–691)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate orally administered famciclovir for treatment of cats with experimentally induced disease attributable to feline herpesvirus type-1 (FHV-1).

Animals—16 nonvaccinated specific-pathogen-free cats.

Procedures—Cats were treated orally with famciclovir (90 mg/kg; n = 10) or a similar volume of lactose (400 mg; 6) 3 times/d for 21 days. Cats were inoculated with FHV-1 and administered the first treatment dose on day 0. Disease score; weight; results of urinalysis, serum biochemical analysis, and CBC; histologic conjunctivitis score; herpetic DNA shedding; goblet cell density; anti-FHV-1 antibody concentration; and plasma penciclovir concentration were measured.

Results—On days 4 to 18 following inoculation, disease scores were lower in famciclovir-treated cats than in lactose-treated cats. Lactose-treated cats decreased in weight during the first 7 days after inoculation, but famciclovir-treated cats increased in weight throughout the study. Percentage change in weight was greater in famciclovir-treated cats on days 7 and 14 than in lactose-treated cats. Serum globulin concentration was lower on days 3 through 9, conjunctivitis histologic score was lower on day 14, herpetic DNA was shed less frequently throughout the study, goblet cell density was greater on day 21, and circulating anti-FHV-1 antibody concentration at study end was lower in famciclovir-treated cats, compared with these measurements in lactose-treated cats. Approximate peak plasma penciclovir concentration was 2.0 μg/mL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Famciclovir administration improved outcomes for systemic, ophthalmic, clinicopathologic, virologic, and histologic variables in cats experimentally infected with FHV-1. Adjunctive topical mucinomimetic and antimicrobial treatments may also be necessary.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether anti-inflammatory doses of cyclosporine activate Toxoplasma gondii in chronically infected cats or potentiate infection in cats exposed for the first time.

ANIMALS 30 T gondii–negative cats.

PROCEDURES Cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (10 cats/group). Group 1 (control) cats were administered a placebo for 126 days; group 2 cats were administered a placebo for 84 days, followed by cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 42 days; and group 3 cats were administered cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 126 days. Cats were orally inoculated with T gondii on day 42. Results for fecal flotations, PCR assays, and histologic examinations and IgM and IgG titers were analyzed. Cyclosporine concentrations were measured on selected days.

RESULTS All cats were infected by T gondii and developed signs of self-limiting gastrointestinal tract infection. Group 3 had the highest incidence and severity of CNS and pulmonary histopathologic findings typical of toxoplasmosis. One cat in group 3 died of systemic toxoplasmosis; that cat had a cyclosporine concentration of 1,690 ng/mL. Group 2 cats infected with T gondii before cyclosporine administration did not have repeated oocyst shedding. Group 3 cats shed fewer oocysts for a shorter time than did control cats of group 1.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cyclosporine in accordance with the protocol for this study did not potentiate the enteroepithelial phase of T gondii infection. Cats with high cyclosporine blood concentrations at the time of primary T gondii infection may be at risk of developing systemic toxoplasmosis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of a commercial bioflavonoid antioxidant on acetaminophen-induced oxidative injury to feline erythrocytes.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—45 healthy age-matched cats.

Procedure—Cats were assigned to 3 experimental groups. Groups 1 and 3 received a bioflavonoid antioxidant (10 mg/d) orally for 2 weeks. Groups 2 and 3 received an oxidative challenge with acetaminophen (90 mg/kg [41 mg/lb] of body weight, PO) on day 7. Packed cell volume, percentage of erythrocytes with Heinz bodies, blood methemoglobin concentration, and blood reduced and oxidized glutathione concentrations were determined at various times during the 2-week study period.

Results—Adverse effects were not associated with bioflavonoid antioxidant administration alone. Acetaminophen administration resulted in a significant increase in methemoglobin concentration in groups 2 and 3; differences were not detected between these groups. Heinz body concentrations in groups 2 and 3 increased after acetaminophen administration; however, the increase in cats that received the antioxidant was significantly less than in group-2 cats. Total blood glutathione concentrations did not change significantly in groups 2 and 3 after acetaminophen administration; however, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione concentration increased significantly after administration in group-2 cats, compared with group-3 cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of bioflavonoid antioxidants to cats at risk for oxidative stress may have a beneficial effect on their ability to resist oxidative injury to erythrocytes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1157–1161)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate semiquantitative and quantitative assays for microalbuminuria and determination of the urine albumin-creatinine (UAC) ratio in detection of systemic disease in dogs without overt proteinuria.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—408 dogs.

Procedures—Urine samples that had been obtained from dogs for which a complete medical record was available and in which results of a dipstick test for urine protein were negative were evaluated. Urine protein-creatinine ratios (cutoff values, 0.5 and 0.1), semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria values (cutoff value, 1 mg/dL), and UAC ratios (cutoff values, 100 and 200 mg/g) were determined. Clinical diagnoses rendered within 3 months of enrollment in the study were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were determined with disease status serving as the standard. Associations with clinical diagnosis, sex, age, BUN and serum creatinine concentrations, blood pressure, results of bacterial culture of urine, temperature, pyuria, hematuria, and bacteriuria were evaluated by use of logistic regression analysis.

Results—48 dogs were healthy, and 360 had at least 1 disease. Significant associations were detected between age, presence of disease, presence of neoplastic disease, BUN and serum creatinine concentrations, and hematuria and results of 1 or both of the microalbuminuria assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Microalbuminuria was associated with underlying disease. The sensitivity and specificity of the semiquantitative microalbuminuria test for detection of systemic disease were superior to those of other tests. Microalbuminuria testing in conjunction with other screening procedures may increase diagnosis of subclinical disease, but a prospective study in which the predictive values of screening tests are evaluated, with and without microalbuminuria determination, is needed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the diagnostic usefulness of semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assays and urine albumin-to-creatinine (UAC) ratio for detecting disease in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—441 cats evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital.

Procedures—Urine samples from cats for which a complete medical record was available were included. Urine dipstick results, urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (cutoffs, 0.1 and 0.4), semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assay results (cutoff, 1 mg/dL), and UAC ratio values (cutoffs, 100 and 200 mg/g) were determined. Clinical diagnoses determined within 3 months of enrollment were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were determined with disease status used as the standard. The influences of clinical diagnosis, sex, age, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, blood pressure, bacterial urine culture results, rectal temperature, pyuria, hematuria, and bacteriuria were evaluated by means of logistic regression.

Results—Of 441 cats that were eligible for inclusion, 40 were healthy and 401 had ≥ 1 disease. Results of logistic regression indicated that significant associations existed for age, presence of disease, presence of urinary tract disease, azotemia, hematuria, and pyuria and results of 1 or both of the microalbuminuria assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Microalbuminuria was associated with underlying disease. Sensitivity and specificity of the microalbuminuria assays for detection of systemic disease were superior to those of other tests. Microalbuminuria testing in conjunction with other screening procedures may increase identification of occult disease. A prospective study evaluating the predictive values of screening tests with and without microalbuminuria determination is needed to validate this recommendation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old 32.5-kg (71.5-lb) sexually intact male foxhound-Treeing Walker Coonhound cross was evaluated because of a 2.5-month history of dermatologic lesions, weight loss, and diarrhea.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, and multifocal pruritic dermatologic lesions of alopecia, thickening, erythema, and follicular casting. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses revealed nonregenerative anemia, mono-cytosis, hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Proteinuria was identified on urinalysis. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and diffuse abdominal lymphadenomegaly were detected on abdominal ultrasonography. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by ELISA detection of serum antibodies against Leishmania spp, a high serum indirect fluorescent antibody titer (1:1,024) against Leishmania infantum, amplification of Leishmania DNA on PCR assay of a whole blood sample and a lymph node aspirate, and histologic identification of suspected Leishmania amastigotes in skin specimens. In addition, the dog had a low CD4+:CD8+ lymphocyte ratio of 1:1.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog was euthanized because of the severity of leishmaniasis and poor prognosis. This dog was from a litter of 10 puppies that included 4 stillborn puppies, 2 puppies that died as neonates, and 1 littermate that was euthanized at 1 year of age because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. Eventually the foxhound dam was euthanized because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. The dog had been raised with an unaffected littermate, its sire, and an unrelated Treeing Walker Coonhound female that were seronegative for Leishmania infection.

Clinical Relevance—Although vertical disease transmission was suspected, it is possible that L infantum is now endemic in Colorado. Leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs with scaly dermatoses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of infectious diseases of animal and zoonotic importance in cats and dogs rescued and transferred from the Gulf Coast region following Hurricane Katrina.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—414 dogs and 56 cats rescued and transferred from the Gulf Coast region within 4 months after the hurricane.

Procedures—EDTA-anticoagulated blood and serum samples were tested via PCR and serologic assays for infectious diseases.

Results—In dogs, prevalence was highest for anti-West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies (218/390 [55.9%]), Dirofilaria immitis antigen (195/400 [48.8%]), anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (92/366 [25.1%]), and hemotropic mycoplasma DNA (40/345 [11.9%]). The DNA of Bartonella spp, Ehrlichia spp, or Babesia spp or anti-canine influenza virus antibodies were identified in < 2% of dogs. In cats, prevalence was highest for antibodies against Bartonella spp and DNA of Bartonella spp combined (49/55 [89.1 %]), anti–T gondii antibodies (13/55 [23.6%]), hemotropic mycoplasma DNA (5/47 [10.6%]), anti-WNV antibodies (5/48 [10.4%]), D immitis antigen (4/50 [8.0%]), and anti–FIV antibodies (4/56 [7.1%]). A total of 308 (74.4%) dogs and 52 (92.9%) cats had evidence of previous or current vector-borne infections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats and dogs rescued from the disaster region had evidence of multiple infectious diseases. The dispersal of potentially infectious animals to other regions of North America where some infections were not typically found could have contributed to new geographic ranges for these organisms or to underdiagnosis in affected animals because of a low index of suspicion in regions with low disease prevalence.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of enteric zoonotic organisms in cats in north-central Colorado.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—Serum and fecal samples from 87 cats with diarrhea, 106 cats without diarrhea, and 12 cats for which fecal consistency was unknown.

Procedures—Samples were obtained from clientowned cats and cats at a humane society shelter. Serum was assayed for feline leukemia virus antigen and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus, IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and IgG antibodies against T gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. Microscopic examination of unstained feces was performed after centrifugation in a zinc sulfate solution, thin fecal smears were stained with acid fast stain and examined for C parvum, and bacteriologic culture of feces was used to detect aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Results—Enteric zoonotic organisms were detected in feces from 27 of 206 (13.1%) cats and included C parvum (5.4%), Giardia spp (2.4%), Toxocara cati (3.9%), Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (1.0%), and Campylobacter jejuni (1.0%); each organism was detected in samples from cats with and without diarrhea. Although differences between groups were not significant, a higher proportion of shelter cats (18.2%) had enteric zoonotic organisms than client-owned cats (10.1%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enteric zoonotic organisms were detected in feces of 13.1% of cats, suggesting that cats, particularly those in homes of immunocompromised humans, should be evaluated for enteric zoonotic organisms. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:687–692)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association