Objective—To determine the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds and determine whether affected dogs had coagulation abnormalities and hypertension.
Design—Multi-institutional, retrospective study.
Procedures—Medical records (including diagnostic testing results) and MRI images of the brain were reviewed for Greyhounds with ischemic stroke that had been evaluated at 4 institutions. The proportion of Greyhounds with ischemic stroke was compared with the proportion of non-Greyhound dogs with ischemic stroke. Demographic information for dogs evaluated at each institution was obtained to determine the proportion of Greyhounds in the hospital populations.
Results—21 Greyhounds with ischemic stroke were identified. Abnormalities in coagulation were not identified in the 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. Systemic hypertension was identified in 6 of 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. No other abnormalities were identified by means of other routine diagnostic tests for Greyhounds. For all institutions combined, the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds was 0.66% (21/3,161 Greyhounds). Greyhounds were significantly more likely to be evaluated because of ischemic stroke, compared with all other dog breeds combined (OR, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.2 to 10.2).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that Greyhounds were predisposed to ischemic stroke, compared with all other breeds combined. Coagulation abnormalities did not seem to contribute to ischemic stroke. Hypertension may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. Greyhounds with ischemic stroke should undergo measurement of systolic arterial blood pressure. Antihypertensive treatments may be warranted for such dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics of various formulations of levetiracetam after oral administration of a single dose to healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 6 neurologically normal mixed-breed dogs.
PROCEDURES A crossover study design was used. Blood samples for serum harvest were collected from each dog before and at various points after oral administration of one 500-mg tablet of each of 2 generic extended-release (ER) formulations, 1 brand-name ER formulation, or 1 brand-name immediate-release (IR) formulation of levetiracetam. Serum samples were analyzed to determine pharmacokinetic properties of each formulation by means of ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.
RESULTS No dogs had clinically important adverse effects for any formulation of levetiracetam. All ER formulations had a significantly lower maximum serum drug concentration and longer time to achieve that concentration than did the IR formulation. Half-lives and elimination rate constants did not differ significantly among formulations. Values for area under the drug concentration-versus-time curve did not differ significantly between ER formulations and the IR formulation; however, 1 generic ER formulation had a significantly lower area under the curve than did other ER formulations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All ER formulations of levetiracetam had similar pharmacokinetic properties in healthy dogs, with some exceptions. Studies will be needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the various formulations; however, findings suggested that twice-daily administration of ER formulations may be efficacious in the treatment of seizures in dogs.
Case Description—A 10-month-old Boxer was evaluated for fever and signs of cervical pain.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed lethargy, fever, and mucopurulent ocular and preputial discharge. On neurologic examination, the gait was characterized by a short stride. The dog kept its head flexed and resisted movement of the neck, consistent with cervical pain. Clinicopathologic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, a left shift, and monocytosis. Cervical radiographs were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed neutrophilic pleocytosis and high total protein content. On the basis of signalment, history, and clinicopathologic data, a diagnosis of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis was made.
Treatment and Outcome—The dog was treated with prednisone (3.2 mg/kg [1.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), for 3 weeks with limited response. Consequently, azathioprine (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) was administered. Three weeks later, the dog was evaluated for tachypnea and lethargy. Complete blood count revealed leukopenia, neutropenia, and a left shift. Thoracic radiography revealed a diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern. The dog subsequently went into respiratory arrest and died. On histologic evaluation, amoebic organisms were observed in the lungs, kidneys, and meninges of the brain and spinal cord. A unique Acanthamoeba sp was identified by use of PCR assay.
Clinical Relevance—This dog developed systemic amoebic infection presumed to be secondary to immunosuppression. The development of secondary infection should be considered in animals undergoing immunosuppression for immune-mediated disease that develop clinical signs unrelated to the primary disease. Although uncommon, amoebic infection may develop in immunosuppressed animals. Use of a PCR assay for identification of Acanthamoeba spp may provide an antemortem diagnosis.