Objective—To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk.
Design—Prospective, cross-sectional study.
Sample—5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers.
Procedures—Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth.
Results—Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions.
Objective—To identify factors associated with outcome in cats with extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EHBTO) that undergo biliary diversion surgery.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of cats with surgically confirmed EHBTO that underwent cholecystoenterostomy were reviewed.
Results—Clinical signs and physical examination findings included vomiting, anorexia, icterus, lethargy, weakness, and weight loss. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities included high serum hepatic enzyme activities and serum bilirubin concentration. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in 21 cats, and all 21 had findings consistent with EHBTO. Eleven of 15 cats in which blood pressure was monitored had intraoperative hypotension. Eighteen cats had anemia following surgery, and 14 cats had persistent hypotension. Extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction was a result of neoplasia in 9 cats and chronic inflammatory disease in 13. Fourteen cats survived long enough to be discharged from the hospital, but only 6 survived > 6 months after surgery, all of which had chronic inflammatory disease. Median survival time for cats with neoplasia (14 days) was significantly shorter than that for cats with inflammatory disease (255 days). No other variable was associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cats with EHBTO secondary to neoplasia have a poorer prognosis than cats with EHBTO secondary to chronic inflammatory disease. However, the overall prognosis for cats with EHBTO undergoing cholecystoenterostomy must be considered guarded to poor, and the incidence of perioperative complications is high.
Diet-associated DCM first came to light in cats in the late 1980s1 and in dogs in the mid-1990s.2 The association between diet and DCM in dogs has generally not been much in the news since the early 2000s, but over the past few years, an increasing number of DCM cases involving dogs appear to have been related to diet. The extent of this issue is not clear, not all cases have been confirmed to be linked to diet, and a true association has not been proven to exist. However, when one of the authors (RF) recently
Objective—To develop and assess the reproducibility of a protocol to noninvasively test endothelial function in dogs on the basis of the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) procedure used in humans.
Animals—5 healthy spayed female dogs.
Procedures—Luminal arterial diameter and blood flow velocity in the brachial and femoral arteries were measured with ultrasonography. The within-dog reproducibility of these ultrasonographic measurements was tested. An occlusion period of 1, 3, or 5 minutes with an inflatable cuff was used to create the FMD response. Measurements made at 15, 30, and 60 seconds following release of the occlusion were compared with measurements made immediately prior to each occlusion to assess the FMD response.
Results—Within-dog reproducibility of measurements revealed moderate to high correlations. Change from baseline in luminal arterial diameter was most substantial when measured at 30 seconds following release of occlusion, whereas blood flow velocity changes were maximal when measured at 15 seconds following release. The brachial imaging site provided a larger number of significant FMD responses than the femoral site. The 3-minute occlusion period provided equal or better responses than the 5-minute occlusion period.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonographic measurement of the FMD responses was a feasible and reproducible technique and significant changes from baseline were detected. The FMD responses in dogs were most substantial when performed at the brachial artery with blood flow velocity and luminal arterial diameter changes from baseline measured at 15 and 30 seconds, respectively, following release of a 3-minute occlusion period.
Objective—To determine current population characteristics
of, clinical findings in, and survival times for
cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Animals—260 cats with HCM.
Procedure—Information was obtained from the medical
records. Cats were classified into 1 of 4 clinical
groups (congestive heart failure [CHF] group, arterial
thromboembolism [ATE] group, syncope group, or
cats without clinical signs [subclinical group]) on the
basis of the primary clinical signs at the initial examination.
Results—120 cats were classified in the CHF group,
43 in the ATE group, 10 in the syncope group, and 87
in the subclinical group. Antecedent events that may
have precipitated CHF included IV fluid administration,
anesthesia, surgery, and recent corticosteroid
administration. Median survival time was 709 days
(range, 2 to 4,418 days) for cats that survived > 24
hours. Cats in the subclinical group lived the longest
(median survival time, 1,129 days; range, 2 to 3,778
days), followed by cats in the syncope group (654
days; range, 28 to 1,505 days), cats in the CHF group
(563 days; range, 2 to 4,418 days), and cats in the ATE
group (184 days; range, 2 to 2,278 days). Causes of
death included ATE (n = 56), CHF (49), sudden death
(13), and noncardiac causes (27). In univariate analyses,
survival time was negatively correlated with left
atrial size, age, right ventricular enlargement, and thoracentesis.
Cats with systolic anterior motion of the
mitral valve lived longer than cats without this
echocardiographic finding. In multivariate analyses,
only age and left atrial size remained significant predictors
of survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
overall survival time for cats with HCM was similar to
earlier reports, survival times for cats with CHF or
ATE were longer than previously reported. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2002;220:202–207)
Objective—To compare effects of short-term administration
of a soy diet with those of a soy-free diet on
serum thyroid hormone concentrations in healthy
Animals—18 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to receive
either a soy or soy-free diet for 3 months each in a
crossover design. Assays included CBC, serum biochemical
profile, thyroid hormone analysis, and measurement
of urinary isoflavone concentrations.
Results—Genistein, a major soy isoflavone, was
identified in the urine of 10 of 18 cats prior to dietary
intervention. Compared with the soy-free diet, cats
that received the soy diet had significantly higher total
thyroxine (T4) and free T4 (fT4) concentrations, but
unchanged total triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations.
The T3/fT4 ratio was also significantly lower in cats
that received the soy diet. Although the magnitudes
of the increases were small (8% for T4 and 14% for
fT4), these changes resulted in an increased proportion
of cats (from 1/18 to 4/18) that had fT4 values
greater than the upper limit of the laboratory reference
range. There was no significant effect of diet on
any other measured parameter.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Short-term
administration of dietary soy has a measurable
although modest effect on thyroid hormone homeostasis
in cats. Increase in T4 concentration relative to
T3 concentration may result from inhibition of 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase or enhanced T3 clearance.
Soy is a common dietary component that increases
serum T4 concentration in cats. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;
Objective—To describe a population of dogs with vehicular trauma and to determine whether age, type and severity of injury, or preexisting disease were associated with outcome.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—239 dogs evaluated at a university referral hospital after vehicular trauma over a 12-month period.
Procedures—Patient characteristics, including age, outcome, animal trauma triage (ATT) score, treatments performed, hospital stay, cost, and preexisting disease, were recorded from medical records of dogs that had vehicular trauma. Dogs were assigned to a young, middle-aged, or geriatric age group. Categoric and continuous variables were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors to identify possible associations.
Results—239 dogs (126 males and 113 females) were evaluated following vehicular trauma during 2001: young (n = 149), middle-aged (68), and geriatric (22). The median ATT score was 3 (range, 0 to 15). Sixteen dogs had preexisting disease. Hospital stay ranged from < 1 to 28 days (median, 3 days). Cost ranged from $77 to $10,636 (median, $853). Two hundred six dogs were discharged. Twenty-six dogs were euthanatized, and 7 died. Dogs that died or were euthanatized had significantly higher ATT scores. The ATT score also was associated with a significantly higher cost of care. Dogs with multiple injuries had significantly higher ATT scores, had increased cost of care, and were significantly more likely to die or be euthanatized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased injury severity in dogs was associated with increased mortality rates and higher cost of treatment.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of obesity on pulmonary function in healthy adult dogs.
Animals—36 Retrievers without cardiopulmonary disease.
Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of body condition score (1 through 9): nonobese (score, 4.5 to 5.5), moderately obese (score, 6.0 to 6.5), and markedly obese (score, 7.0 to 9.0). Pulmonary function tests performed in conscious dogs included spirometry and measurement of inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance (Raw) and specific Raw (sRaw) during normal breathing and during hyperpnea via head-out whole-body plethysmography. Functional residual capacity (FRC; measured by use of helium dilution), diffusion capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and arterial blood gas variables (PaO2, PaCO2, and alveolar-arterial gradient) were assessed.
Results—During normal breathing, body condition score did not influence airway function, DLCO, or arterial blood gas variables. During hyperpnea, expiratory sRaw was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs than nonobese dogs and Raw was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs, compared with nonobese and moderately obese dogs. Although not significantly different, markedly obese dogs had a somewhat lower FRC, compared with other dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, obesity appeared to cause airflow limitation during the expiratory phase of breathing, but this was only evident during hyperpnea. This suggests that flow limitation is dynamic and likely occurs in the distal (rather than proximal) portions of the airways. Further studies are warranted to localize the flow-limited segment and understand whether obesity is linked to exercise intolerance via airway dys-function in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the potential importance of
dystrophin, α-sarcoglycan (adhalin), and β-dystroglycan,
by use of western blot analysis, in several breeds
of dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.
Sample Population—Myocardial samples obtained
from 12 dogs were evaluated, including tissues from
7 dogs affected with dilated cardiomyopathy, 4 control
dogs with no identifiable heart disease (positive control),
and 1 dog affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(negative control for dystrophin). Of the affected
dogs, 4 breeds were represented (Doberman
Pinscher, Dalmatian, Bullmastiff, and Irish
Procedure—Western blot analysis was used for evaluation
of myocardial samples obtained from dogs
with and without dilated cardiomyopathy for the presence
of dystrophin and 2 of its associated glycoproteins,
α-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan.
Results—Detectable differences were not identified
between dogs with and without myocardial disease in
any of the proteins evaluated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abnormalities
in dystrophin, α-sarcoglycan, and β-dystroglycan proteins
were not associated with the development of
dilated cardiomyopathy in the dogs evaluated in this
study. In humans, the development of molecular biological
techniques has allowed for the identification of
specific causes of dilated cardiomyopathy that were
once considered to be idiopathic. The use of similar
techniques in veterinary medicine may aid in the identification
of the cause of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
in dogs, and may offer new avenues for therapeutic
intervention. ( Am J Vet Res 2001;62:67–71)
Objective—To determine duration of administration,
complications, and frequency of aortic thromboembolism
associated with administration of low molecular
weight heparin (dalteparin) in cats.
Animals—57 cats treated with dalteparin.
Procedure—Data were recorded from the medical
records of cats treated with dalteparin, and owners
were contacted by telephone for information regarding
ease of administration and possible adverse
Results—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners.
Median dose was 99 U/kg (45 U/lb) once or twice
daily. Bleeding complications were infrequent. Of 43
cats with cardiomyopathy that received owner-administered
dalteparin for a median follow-up time of 172
days, 8 cats developed documented or possible arterial
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dalteparin
was easily administered by owners and was well tolerated
by cats. Whether dalteparin administration can
reduce the frequency or severity of arterial thromboembolism
is not yet known. (J Am Vet Med Assoc