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  • Author or Editor: Kenneth W Hinchcliff x
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Abstract

Objective

To describe changes in blood constituents of horses after oral and IV administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and to determine whether the changes are dose dependent.

Animals

6 adult Standardbred mares.

Procedure

3 oral doses (1,500, 1,000, and 250 mg/kg of body weight) or 1 intravenous dose (250 mg/kg, 5% solution) of NaHCO3 in 3 L of water, or water (3 L orally), were given to the mares; then changes in blood constituents were measured. Access to food and water was denied during the experiment. Blood samples were collected immediately before treatment and at hourly intervals for 12 hours after treatment, and were analyzed for blood gas tensions; serum osmolality; serum sodium, potassium, chloride, and creatinine concentrations; PCV; and total solids concentration in plasma.

Results

All NaHCO3 treatments induced significant (P < 0.05) metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and hyperosmolality for at least 8 hours. In mares given the 1,500- and 1,000-mg doses of NaHCO3 orally, hypercapnia persisted for at least 12 hours, whereas hypercapnia lasted 2 hours in mares given the 250-mg dose orally or IV (P < 0.05). A tendency for reduction in PCV, proteins in plasma concentration, and serum concentration of chloride was observed 1 hour after IV administered doses of NaHCO3.

Conclusions

Oral or IV administration of NaHCO3 (≥ 250 mg/kg) to resting horses without ad libitum access to water induces significant and persistent acidbase and electrolyte changes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:658–663)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the seroprevalence of serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in horses residing in Ohio.

Design

Prevalence survey.

Sample Population

Serum from samples from 1,056 horses. Serum was collected on every 36th sample submitted to the Ohio State Diagnostic Laboratory for testing for equine infectious anemia.

Procedure

Serum was frozen at −80 C and analyzed for antibodies to S neurona, using a western blot. Information regarding blood sample collection, age, breed, sex, and geographic location was recorded for each horse. Data were analyzed, using multivariable logistic regression.

Results

Horses of 37 breeds from 81 of Ohio's 88 counties were included in the study population. There were 481 females, 133 males, and 442 geldings ranging in age from 3 months to 27 years; > 48% were < 5.6 years old. More than 53% of samples were seropositive for antibodies to S neurona. A gender or breed effect on seroprevalence was not identified. There was a significant effect of age (P ≤ 0.0001; with older horses more likely to be affected), and of location (statistical and extension districts; P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively) on seroprevalence. Location effects appeared to be correlated to the number of days with temperatures below freezing (P < 0.05).

Clinical Implications

The high seroprevalence of antibodies to S neurona found in the sample population emphasizes the importance of examining CSF for S neurona-specific antibodies when establishing a diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:519–524)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To clone and sequence cDNA for equine insulin-responsive glucose transporter (glucose transporter type 4 [GLUT-4]) and determine effects of glycogen-depleting exercise and meal type after exercise on GLUT-4 gene expression in skeletal muscle of horses.

Animals—Muscle biopsy specimens from 7 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Total RNA was extracted from specimens, and GLUT-4 cDNA was synthesized and sequenced. Horses were exercised on 3 consecutive days. On the third day of exercise, for 8 hours after exercise, horses were either not fed, fed half of daily energy requirements as hay, or fed an isocaloric amount of corn. The GLUT-4 mRNA was determined by use of realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in muscle biopsy specimens obtained before 3 consecutive days of exercise and within 10 minutes and 4, 8, and 24 hours after the third exercise bout.

Results—A 1,629-bp segment was sequenced, of which 1,530 bp corresponded to the coding region and encoded a protein of 509 amino acids. Expression of GLUT-4 gene increased by 2.3, 4.3, 3.3, and 2.6 times 10 minutes and 4, 8, and 24 hours after exercise, respectively, compared with that prior to exercise. No differences were observed in GLUT-4 gene expression among conditions of feed withholding, corn feeding, and hay feeding during the 8 hours postexercise.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Lack of increase of GLUT-4 gene expression after grain feeding and exercise may explain the apparently slower rate of glycogen synthesis after exercise in horses relative to that of other species. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:379–385)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether repetitive endurance exercise in sled dogs was associated with substantial lipid peroxidation, decreases in antioxidant capacity of the serum, and skeletal muscle damage.

Animals—24 lightly trained sled dogs.

Procedure—16 dogs completed a 58-km run on each of 3 consecutive days; the other 8 dogs (control) did not exercise during the study. Blood samples were collected before the first exercise run and after the first and third exercise runs. Plasma isoprostane and serum vitamin E concentrations, total antioxidant status of plasma, and serum creatine kinase activity were measured.

Results—Plasma isoprostane concentrations in dogs in the exercise group were significantly increased after the first exercise run and further significantly increased after the third exercise run. Serum vitamin E concentration was significantly decreased after the first exercise run in dogs in the exercise group, and this change persisted after the third exercise run. There was a significant linear relationship between plasma isoprostane concentration and the logarithm of serum creatine kinase activity (adjusted r 2 = 0.84).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results demonstrate that repetitive endurance exercise in dogs is associated with lipid peroxidation and a reduction in plasma antioxidant concentrations. We interpret these results as indicating that the antioxidant mechanisms of minimally trained dogs may, in some instances, be inadequate to meet the antioxidant requirements of repetitive endurance exercise. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:512–517)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess changes in muscle glycogen (MG) and triglyceride (MT) concentrations in aerobically conditioned sled dogs during prolonged exercise.

Animals—54 Alaskan sled dogs fed a high-fat diet.

Procedures—48 dogs ran 140-km distances on 4 consecutive days (cumulative distance, up to 560 km); 6 dogs remained as nonexercising control animals. Muscle biopsies were performed immediately after running 140, 420, or 560 km (6 dogs each) and subsequently after feeding and 7 hours of rest. Single muscle biopsies were performed during recovery at 28 hours in 7 dogs that completed 560 km and at 50 and 98 hours in 7 and 6 dogs that completed 510 km, respectively. Tissue samples were analyzed for MG and MT concentrations.

Results—In control dogs, mean ± SD MG and MT concentrations were 375 ± 37 mmol/kg of dry weight (kgDW) and 25.9 ± 10.3 mmol/kgDW, respectively. Compared with control values, MG concentration was lower after dogs completed 140 and 420 km (137 ± 36 mmol/kgDW and 203 ± 30 mmol/kgDW, respectively); MT concentration was lower after dogs completed 140, 420, and 560 km (7.4 ± 5.4 mmol/kgDW; 9.6 ± 6.9 mmol/kgDW, and 6.3 ± 4.9 mmol/kgDW, respectively). Depletion rates during the first run exceeded rates during the final run. Replenishment rates during recovery periods were not different, regardless of distance; only MG concentration at 50 hours was significantly greater than the control value.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concentration of MG progressively increased in sled dogs undergoing prolonged exercise as a result of attenuated depletion.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of racing and nontraining on plasma thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) concentrations in sled dogs and compare results with reference ranges established for dogs of other breeds.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—122 sled dogs.

Procedure—Plasma thyroid hormone concentrations were measured before dogs began and after they finished or were removed from the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race in Alaska and approximately 3 months after the race.

Results—Concentrations of T4 and fT4 before the race were less than the reference range for nonsled dogs in 26% and 18% of sled dogs, respectively. Immediately after racing, 92% of sled dogs had plasma T4 concentrations less than the reference range. Three months after the race, 25% of sled dogs had plasma T4 concentrations less than the reference range. For T4, fT4, TSH, and TgAA, significant differences were not detected in samples collected before the race versus 3 months later.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma T4, fT4, and TSH concentrations decreased in dogs that complete a long distance sled dog race. Many clinically normal sled dogs have plasma T4 and fT4 values that are lower than the reference range for nonsled dogs. We suggest that the reference ranges for sled dogs are 5.3 to 40.3 nmol/L and 3.0 to 24.0 pmol/L for plasma T4 and fT4 concentrations, respectively, and 8.0 to 37.0 mU/L for TSH. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:226–231)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—48 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 17 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Blood was collected and serum ketone, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. Indicators of acid-base status were calculated and compared between groups.

Results—Serum ketone and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic than in healthy dogs, but there was no difference in venous blood pH or base excess between groups. Anion gap and strong ion difference were significantly higher and strong ion gap and serum bicarbonate concentration were significantly lower in the diabetic dogs. There were significant linear relationships between measures of acid-base status and serum ketone concentration, but not between measures of acid-base status and serum lactate concentration. Serum insulin concentration did not differ significantly between groups, but diabetic dogs had a wider range of values. All diabetic dogs with a serum ketone concentration > 1,000 μmol/L had a serum insulin concentration < 5 μU/mL. There were strong relationships between serum ketone concentration and serum glucagon-insulin ratio, serum cortisol concentration, and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, expressed as a percentage of serum ketone concentration, decreased as serum ketone concentration increased.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of training and sustained submaximal exercise on hematologic values in racing sled dogs.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—39 Alaskan sled dogs bred for endurance racing.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected prior to initiation of a 7-month training regimen (n = 39), after completion of the training regimen (19), and after completion of an 1,100-mile race (9), and a CBC, differential cell count, and flow cytometry for leukocyte surface antigens were performed.

Results—Both training and exercise caused significant decreases in PCV and hemoglobin concentration and significant increases in total WBC count. In contrast, training and exercise were not found to have significant effects on absolute numbers or fractions of CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes, other than a significant increase in the fraction of CD8+ lymphocytes associated with training.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that training and exercise induced changes in several hematologic values in racing sled dogs. Extracellular fluid volume expansion was the likely explanation for the training-induced decrease in PCV, and acute blood loss secondary to gastrointestinal tract bleeding was likely responsible for the decrease in PCV associated with acute exercise.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there is evidence of myocardial injury in horses with acute abdominal disease.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—18 healthy horses and 69 horses with acute abdominal disease.

Procedures—18 healthy horses had been admitted to the hospital for investigation and were assigned to group 1. Horses examined for acute abdominal disease were assigned to 3 groups: strangulating obstruction, nonstrangulating obstruction, or inflammatory disease (groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively). Heart rate, Hct, and blood lactate and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations were measured at initial examination. Myocardial function was assessed by echocardiographic measurement of fractional shortening and left ventricular ejection time (LVET). Heart rhythm was evaluated via ECG.

Results—The proportion of horses with high (> 0.03 ng/mL) cTnI concentration was significantly greater among horses with strangulating (9/25 [36%]) or inflammatory (9/19 [47%]) lesions, compared with healthy horses (0/18). The proportion of horses with high cTnI concentration was significantly greater among nonsurvivors (12/24 [50%]) than among survivors (10/45 [22%]). Serum cTnI concentration was positively correlated with Hct, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration and negatively correlated with LVET.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evidence of myocardial injury was observed in horses with acute abdominal disease, and this injury was associated with severity of illness. Recognition of myocardial injury could improve treatment of acute abdominal disease in horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of walking or standing on hepatic blood flow of horses after brief, intense exercise.

Animals

6 adult Thoroughbreds (4 mares, 2 geldings).

Procedure

Horses were preconditioned on a treadmill to establish uniform level of fitness. Once fit, treadmill speed causing each horse to exercise at 120% of maximal oxygen consumption was determined and used in simulated races at 14-day intervals. In a three-way crossover study, horses were exercised at a speed inducing 120% of maximal oxygen consumption until fatigued or for a maximum of 2 minutes. Three interventions were studied: resting on the treadmill (REST), exercised then standing on the treadmill for 30 minutes (MS), and exercised then walking at 2 m/s for 30 minutes (MW). At 60 seconds after completion of exercise, bromsulphalein (BSP) was infused IV, and blood samples were collected every 2 minutes for 30 minutes for analysis of BSP concentration. Hematocrit and plasma total solids concentration were measured. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived, using nonlinear regression, and were compared, using Friedman’s repeated measures analysis on ranks.

Results

Plasma BSP concentration was higher after exercise. Median hepatic blood flow (BSP clearance) decreased significantly from 23.8 (REST) to 20.7 (MS) and 18.7 (MW) ml/min/kg. Median steady-state volume of distribution of BSP decreased from 47.6 (REST) to 42.7 (MW) and 40.2 (MS) ml/kg. Differences among trials were not significant when horses walked or stood after exercise.

Conclusions

Hepatic blood flow and pharmacokinetics of BSP are markedly altered immediately after exercise. Limiting movement of horses during this period did not affect hepatic blood flow. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1476–1480)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research