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Summary

Biplanar radiography was used to study normal growth of the left and right radius in 5 Beagles and growth of the left radius alone in 15 additional Beagles. We explored the applicability of this radiographic method in veterinary medicine by measuring the contribution to total radius length from each growth plate. Spherical tantalum markers (0.5 mm) were embedded in the proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis of each dog's radius at 10 weeks of age. Simultaneous biplanar radiographic views were obtained every 4 weeks until skeletal maturity was documented. A three-dimensional coordinate system was constructed allowing for measurement of growth (in millimeters). Resolution of the measuring system was 0.074 mm. Mean ± sem length of the skeletally mature Beagle's radius, as measured from proximal epiphyseal bead to distal epiphyseal bead, was 95.33 ± 1.07 mm. The percentage of contribution to the total radius length from the proximal and distal growth plates was 36.76 and 64.73%, respectively, with 95% confidence interval of 2.29%. The percentage of contribution to radius length from the distal radial growth plate increased for each consecutive time segment, with the distal radial physis contributing 61.75% from 10 to 14 weeks of age and increasing to 70.22% from 22 to 26 weeks of age. Significant growth was not observed after 26 weeks of age. The period of most rapid growth was between 10 and 14 weeks of age.

Biplanar radiography was accurate and precise in quantifying the relative contribution of the proximal and distal growth plate to radius length in Beagles. The method is applicable in veterinary research or clinical medicine for monitoring of axial and angular growth: physiologic, iatrogenic, or pathologic.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Superficial digital flexor tendinitis was induced in each forelimb of 8 horses by injecting 4,000 U of collagenase into the midmetacarpal region of the tendon. In each horse, each tendon was treated 24 and 96 hours after the collagenase injection with sc injections of sodium hyaluronate (treated limbs) or an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl solution (control limbs). Exercise was restricted for the first 3 weeks of the study, and a controlled exercise program was instituted for the remainder of the study. Horses were evaluated clinically for lameness, tendon swelling, and midmetacarpal limb circumference. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed regularly (11 examinations/horse) throughout the study, and all horses were euthanatized 12 weeks after collagenase injections. Tendons from 4 horses were harvested for biomechanical testing, and samples were obtained from tendons from the remaining 4 horses for biochemical analysis of collagen. Samples were obtained from all tendons for microscopic evaluation. Significant differences between treated and control tendons were not noticed in any of the variables examined in live horses, although trends toward less lameness in treated limbs and toward better healing on ultrasonographic examination in control limbs were recorded. Significant differences were not noticed in biomechanical or biochemical evaluations, and the only significant (P < 0.05) microscopic finding was more severe inflammation in tendons from treated limbs. This study did not reveal significant benefits of treatment with sodium hyaluronate outside a synovial sheath on tendon repair in collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The medical records of 66 calves with atresia coli were reviewed; 64 calves were examined at the New York State College of Veterniary Medicine, and 2 calves were examined at the New Bolton Center. In each case, the site of the atresia was within the spiral loop of the ascending colon. In 1 of these calves, a segment of jejunum was also atretic. Absence of feces, progressive weakness, and abdominal distension were the most common clinical signs observed. Other congenital abnormalities were detected in 12 (18%) of 66 calves.

Of the 66 calves examined, 5 were euthanatized or died on admission, and 61 had an exploratory celiotomy performed. Eight calves were euthanatized or died during the surgery. In the remaining 53 calves, surgical treatment consisted of enterotomy followed by meconium evacuation, resection of the proximal blind end (in 30 calves), and restoration of intestinal continuity. Restoration of intestinal continuity was done either by side-to-side anastomosis of the proximal to distal blind ends (5 calves), or by side-to-side or end-to-side anastomosis of the proximal blind end to the descending colon (48 calves). Of the 66 calves seen, 27 (41 %) were discharged from the hospital, and 11 of these reached reproductive age (11 calves were lost to follow-up before they were 2 years old). From the 11 calves reaching reproductive age, 33 calves were born, one of which may have had atresia coli. The owners should anticipate that long-term survivors likely will have loose feces and normal offspring, but may not grow as well as otherwise expected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To develop a robust molecular genetic test for α-l-fucosidosis in English Springer Spaniels and to screen dogs from the United Kingdom and United States for the mutant allele.

Animals

35 English-bred English Springer Spaniels, 60 American-bred English Springer Spaniels, and 1 affected dog and its parents from a family of English Springer Spaniels in Colorado.

Procedure

Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to amplify the mutated region in the gene encoding α-l-fucosidase. High guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the region required use of an amplification buffer with high pH. Mutant and normal alleles were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular genetic test results were compared with enzyme data.

Results

A 262-bp PCR product was amplified from normal dogs and compared with a 248-bp product from affected dogs. Carriers had 1 copy of each allele, distinguishable by the 14-bp size difference. Two carriers among the English-bred dogs were identified by use of enzyme and genomic DNA analyses. The molecular defect in dogs from Colorado was proven to be the same as that in British and Australian dogs. None of the other 60 American-bred dogs carried the mutant allele.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

A PCR method that can be used to identify dogs affected with or carriers of the autosomal recessive disease fucosidosis was established. Amplification was achieved within a GC-rich region, using a method that may be useful in overcoming amplification problems in GC-rich areas within other genes. Using this test, fucosidosis can be controlled and ultimately eradicated from the English Springer Spaniel population. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:726-729)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the association between longitudinal bone growth and concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in serum from prepubertal dogs.

Animals

6 male 14-week-old German Shepherd Dogs.

Procedure

Blood was obtained every 30 minutes for 14 consecutive days. Concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum were determined, using a canine-specific radioimmunoassay and conventional radioimmunoassay after acid-ethanol extraction, respectively. Simultaneous biplanar radiography was performed daily to measure bone growth. Spectral analysis was used to estimate specific features of GH secretion during an extended period. Multiple linear regression with different lag times between independent and dependent variables was used to determine the strongest predictors of bone growth.

Results

The power spectra of GH concentrations in serum had a primary peak at a frequency of 0.02 cycles/h or a periodicity of 50 h/cycle. A significant determinant of longitudinal bone growth was a lag time of 1 day in concentration of GH in serum. The relationship between IGF-I concentration in serum and bone growth was not significant.

Conclusions

The primary frequency of GH secretion is outside the time frame of a single day and the concentration of GH in serum is a primary determinant of bone growth.

Clinical Relevance

A better understanding of the components of bone growth provide discernment to improved diagnosis and treatment of abnormal bone growth. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1608-1612)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether results of the Ortolani method of hip joint palpation in dogs were related to distraction index (DI), Norberg angle, or radiographic hip score.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Animals

459 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were sedated for radiography and palpation of the hip joints. Results of hip joint palpation were classified as negative, mild positive, moderate positive, or severe positive. Distraction indices were measured for all dogs. Norberg angles were measured for 380 dogs for which ventrodorsal hip-extended radiographic projections were available. Hip scores assigned by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) were available for 95 dogs.

Results

Age, weight, and sex were not significantly associated with results of hip joint palpation. There was moderate correlation between results of hip joint palpation and DI (r = 0.636), low-moderate correlation between results of hip joint palpation and OFA hip scores (rs = 0.437), and weak negative correlation (r = -0.236) between results of hip joint palpation and Norberg angle. For joints without degenerative joint disease (DJD), there was a significant linear relationship between results of hip palpation and DI; however, for joints with DJD, there was not. Results of hip joint palpation were 5.3-fold as likely to be negative for dogs with DJD as for dogs without.

Clinical Implications

Results of hip joint palpation were at best moderately correlated with radiographic measures of hip joint laxity. Therefore, hip joint palpation should be combined with hip-extended and stress radiography when assessing hip joint quality. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:497–501).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of local anesthesia of the palmar digital nerves on forelimb kinematics in Quarter Horses with and without navicular disease.

Animals

12 adult Quarter Horses; 5 clinically normal (sound) and 7 with navicular disease.

Procedure

Kinematic measurements were made on adult horses trotting on a treadmill, before and after palmar digital nerve block (PDNB). Twenty-three displacement, joint angle, and temporal gait measurements of the right forelimb and head were made for 5 strides in each horse. Initial (before local anesthesia) right forelimb measurements were obtained after a left forelimb PDNB. Kinematic measurements were compared before and after PDNB of the right forelimb by multiple ANOVA with an α = 0.05, adjusted for posthoc comparisons by Bonferroni correction.

Results

In sound horses, the only significant change in kinematic measurements after PDNB nerve block was in the maximum extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint at mid-stance, which was decreased by an angle of 2°. In horses with navicular disease, mean maximum extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint during stance phase and maximum flexion of the carpal joint during swing phase were significantly increased after PDNB. Also, total stance phase, cranial stance phase, and breakover durations were significantly shorter. In horses with navicular disease, differences between minimum head heights during stance phase of each forelimb and total vertical head excursion during a complete stride were significantly smaller after PDNB.

Conclusion

Several kinematic measurements of gait can be used to determine improvement of lameness in horses with navicular disease after PDNB block while trotting on a treadmill. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:218–223)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To study biomechanical characteristics of the normal and surgically altered canine thoracolumbar vertebral column to determine the effects of surgery and trauma on lateral stability.

Animals

The T13-L1 vertebral motion units of 48 mixed-breed dogs were dissected free of surrounding musculature and prepared for biomechanical testing by cross-pinning the vertebral bodies and mounting in polymethylmethacrylate.

Procedure

Normal and surgically altered spinal specimens were subjected to lateral bending. The mean slope of the bending moment versus angular displacement curve and the load to failure were compared between treatment groups and significance was determined by the method of least squares (P < 0.05). Specimens were surgically altered by facetectomy, lateral fenestration, diskectomy, and combinations of these procedures. Each specimen was subjected to lateral bending to failure at a rate of 2.5 cm/min in a swing arm bending jig designed to simulate 4-point bending and subject the specimen to pure bending.

Results

Only specimens undergoing diskectomy had a significant decrease in slope and load at failure. Unilateral and bilateral facetectomies and fenestration induced a nonsignificant decrease in stiffness, compared with control specimens.

Conclusions

Fenestrations and facetectomies do not appear to increase the risk of injury to the canine thoracolumbar spinal cord during lateral bending.

Clinical Relevance

Fenestrations and facetectomies, as used in routine laminectomies, may be performed without concern for significant destabilization of the spine in lateral bending; however, it is possible that thoracolumbar spinal fractures involving only the vertebral body may significantly destabilize the spine in all modes of bending. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1228-1232)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop a system for analysis of immune response variables in the lymph draining the lung and to establish baseline data for clinically normal calves.

Design

Surgery was performed on 6 calves to insert a cannula into the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal lymph node to create a long-term thoracic lymph fistula draining to the exterior. Lymph was collected daily, and on the fifth postoperative day, calves were exposed to an aerosol of cell culture medium (mock infection). For the next 10 days, lymph was collected for analysis and, on the tenth day, necropsy was performed.

Animals

Six 6- to 8-week-old Holstein bull calves.

Procedures

Daily lymph samples were evaluated for: flow rate; total and differential cell counts; and IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and protein concentrations. On days −4, −1, 1, 4, 7, and 10, cells were stained and quantitated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis for T, B, CD4+, and CD8+ cells. Blood lymphocytes were evaluated on days -1 and 10 for comparison.

Results

Flow was established for up to 25 days, with a mean rate between 11 and 22 ml/h. Protein concentrations in lymph and plasma did not indicate a protein drain. Although mean lymphocyte counts reflected a slight gradual decrease in lymph lymphocytes, this effect was not apparent in every calf, nor was the effect seen in blood lymphocytes. There were no significant changes in IgG, IgM, IgA, or IgE concentration, with the exception of IgA concentration in 1 calf that developed an abscess at the cannulation site. The T-cell subset absolute numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ cells decreased slightly over time, but the CD4+-to-CD8+ cell ratio remained almost constant at near 2.

Conclusions

Creation of a thoracic lymphatic fistula appears to be a useful technique for studying effects of lung infection on immunologic variables, with potential application to bacterial and viral respiratory tract diseases.

Clinical Relevance

Thoracic lymphatic cannulation can be used in studies to determine pathogenic mechanisms in respiratory tract disease and to develop more effective vaccines against respiratory tract pathogens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research