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Summary

The effect of 3 plasma concentrations of alfentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration (mac) of halothane in horses was evaluated. Five healthy geldings were anesthetized on 3 occasions, using halothane in oxygen administered through a mask. After induction of anesthesia, horses were instrumented for measurement of blood pressure, airway pressure, and end-tidal halothane concentrations. Blood samples, for measurement of pH and blood gas tensions, were taken from the facial artery. Positive pressure ventilation was begun, maintaining PaCO 2, at 49.1 ± 3.3 mm of Hg and airway pressure at 20 ± 2 cm of H2O. The mac was determined in triplicate, using a supramaximal electrical stimulus of the oral mucous membranes. Alfentanil infusion was then begun, using a computer-driven infusion pump to achieve and maintain 1 of 3 plasma concentrations of alfentanil. Starting at 30 minutes after the beginning of the infusion, mac was redetermined in duplicate. Mean ± sd measured plasma alfentanil concentration during the infusions were 94.8 ± 29.0, 170.7 ± 29.2 and 390.9 ± 107.4 ng/ml. Significant changes in mac were not observed for any concentration of alfentanil. Blood pressure was increased by infusion of alfentanil and was dose-related, but heart rate did not change. Pharmacokinetic variables of alfentanil were determined after its infusion and were not significantly different among the 3 doses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seven horses (4 anesthetized and 3 awake) and 2 ponies (anesthetized) were studied to evaluate the high sensitivity of the pulmonary circulation of the horse to various blood-borne particles, and to establish the presence of intravascular macrophages in the lung. Pulmonary and systemic pressures and cardiac output before and during particle injection were measured in some animals. An anesthetized foal had a large increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (32 and 34 mm of Hg) within 1 minute of IV administration of small test doses of radioactively labeled liposomes (2.5 μmol/kg of body weight) or a 1% suspension of blue pigment (0.3 ml/kg), respectively. Quantitative real-time gamma camera imaging of the foal revealed high retention of the labeled liposomes during the first pass through the lungs; retention persisted throughout the experiment. Postmortem analysis revealed 55 and 47% lung retention of liposomes and blue pigment, respectively. The 2 anesthetized ponies had increased pulmonary artery pressure of 34 ± 7 mm of Hg, decreased cardiac output, and 42% lung retention after administration of 1% blue pigment (0.2 ml/kg), whereas 3 awake horses had increased pressure of 28 ± 9 mm of Hg after 1.8 × 108 (1.8-μm-diameter) latex microspheres/kg. None of the injected particles caused vascular obstruction, and they do not cause pulmonary vascular reactivity in species that lack pulmonary intravascular macrophages. Finally, 3 horses (1 anesthetized and 2 awake) were infused Iv with small doses of the blue pigment, and their lungs were perfusion-fixed to identify specific labeling of the pulmonary intravascular macrophages. These cells were fully differentiated macrophages, contained blue pigment in phagocytes, and were tightly adherent to the pulmonary capillary endothelium. At this time, horses (order Perissodactyla) are the only species outside the mammalian order Artiodactyla (sheep, pig, cattle) documented to have reactive intravascular macrophages. Compared with other species, low doses of particles induced marked hemodynamic responses; horses appear to be more sensitive to IV administered particles than are other species studied.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether a detergent can prevent most of the early effects of IV infusion with Escherichia coli endotoxin (< 100 ng/kg of body weight) in horses: marked pulmonary hypertension, acute leukopenia, and fever.

Animals

8 healthy adult horses (4 male, 4 female), 415 to 615 kg.

Design and Procedure

Control and detergent experiments were performed in each horse while it was awake but sedated. In control experiments, 10 to 100 ng of E coli endotoxin/kg was given. In detergent experiments, 100 mg of detergent/kg was given 1 hour before injecting endotoxin, similar to the control experiments.

Results

In control experiments, pulmonary arterial pressure increased transiently over 40 minutes by 33 ± 8 mm of Hg (mean ± SD; P < 0.001), then returned to baseline. Circulating leukocytes decreased to 47 ± 19% (P < 0.02) of baseline by 1 hour after endotoxin, then increased above baseline by 6 hours. Rectal temperature increased by 0.7 ± 0.4 C (P < 0.01). In detergent experiments, the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure was much less than that in the control experiments (8 ± 7 mm of Hg; P < 0.001). Circulating leukocytes did not decrease, and the increase in rectal temperature after endotoxin was blocked.

Conclusions

This attenuation of the response to endotoxin may occur because the normal steps in the response of pulmonary intravascular macrophages (ie, endocytosis of endotoxin and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators) are altered by the detergent. This low-technology, inexpensive, and safe treatment could be an important new clinical tool for veterinarians in combating endotoxemia. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1063–1066)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of xylazine and ketamine for total IV anesthesia in horses.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedure—Anesthetic induction was performed on 4 occasions in each horse with xylazine (0.75 mg/kg, IV), guaifenesin (75 mg/kg, IV), and ketamine (2 mg/kg, IV). Intravenous infusions of xylazine and ketamine were then started by use of 1 of 6 treatments as follows for which 35, 90, 120, and 150 represent infusion dosages (µg/kg/min) and X and K represent xylazine and ketamine, respectively: X35+K90 with 100% inspired oxygen (O2), X35+K120-O2, X35+K150-O2, X70+K90-O2, K150-O2, and X35+K120 with a 21% fraction of inspired oxygen (ie, air). Cardiopulmonary measurements were performed. Response to a noxious electrical stimulus was observed at 20, 40, and 60 minutes after induction. Times to achieve sternal recumbency and standing were recorded. Quality of sedation, induction, and recovery to sternal recumbency and standing were subjectively evaluated.

Results—Heart rate and cardiac index were higher and total peripheral resistance lower in K150-O2 and X35+K120-air groups. The mean arterial pressure was highest in the X35+K120-air group and lowest in the K150-O2 group (125 ± 6 vs 85 ± 8 at 20 minutes, respectively). Mean PaO2 was lowest in the X35+K120-air group. Times to sternal recumbency and standing were shortest for horses receiving K150-O2 (23 ± 6 minutes and 33 ± 8 minutes, respectively) and longest for those receiving X70+K90-O2 (58 ± 28 minutes and 69 ± 27 minutes, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusions of xylazine and ketamine may be used with oxygen supplementation to maintain 60 minutes of anesthesia in healthy adult horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1002–1007)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To establish the route of infusion (IV or intraosseous) that results in the highest concentration of amikacin in the synovial fluid of the tibiotarsal joint and determine the duration of peak concentrations.

Animals—21 horses.

Procedure—Regional perfusion of a limb on 15 horses was performed. Amikacin sulfate was infused into the saphenous vein or via intraosseous infusion into the distal portion of the tibia (1 g in 56 ml of lactated Ringer's solution) or proximal portion of the metatarsus (1 g of amikacin in 26 ml of lactated Ringer's solution). Amikacin concentrations were measured in sequential samples from tibiotarsal joint synovial fluid and serum. Samples were obtained immediately prior to release of the tourniquet and 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the tourniquet was released. Radiographic contrast material was infused into the same locations as the antibiotic perfusate to evaluate distribution in 6 other horses.

Results—Infusion into the saphenous vein produced the highest concentration of amikacin in the tibiotarsal joint, compared with the distal portion of the tibia (mean ± SE, 701.8 ± 366.8 vs 203.8 ± 64.5 µg/ml, respectively). Use of a lower volume of diluent in the proximal portion of the metatarsus produced a peak value of 72.2 ± 23.4 µg/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For regional perfusion of the tarsus, IV infusion is preferred to intraosseous infusion, because higher concentrations are achieved in the synovial fluid, and the procedure is easier to perform. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:374–380).

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare characteristics of horses recovering from 4 hours of desflurane anesthesia with and without immediate postanesthetic IV administration of propofol and xylazine.

Animals—8 healthy horses (mean ± SEM age, 6.6 ± 1.0 years; mean body weight, 551 ± 50 kg).

Procedures—Horses were anesthetized twice. Both times, anesthesia was induced with a combination of xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, and ketamine hydrochloride and then maintained for 4 hours with desflurane in oxygen. Choice of postanesthetic treatment was randomly assigned via a crossover design such that each horse received an IV injection of propofol and xylazine or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution after the anesthetic episode. Recovery events were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after anesthesia for determination of serum creatine kinase activity and plasma propofol concentration.

Results—Anesthetic induction and maintenance were unremarkable in all horses. Compared with administration of saline solution, postanesthetic administration of propofol and xylazine resulted in an increased interval to emergence from anesthesia but improved quality of recovery-related transition to standing. Compared with administration of saline solution, administration of propofol also delayed the rate of decrease of end-tidal concentrations of desflurane and carbon dioxide and added to conditions promoting hypoxemia and hypoventilation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Propofol and xylazine administered IV to horses after 4 hours of desflurane anesthesia improved the quality of transition from lateral recumbency to standing but added potential for harmful respiratory depression during the postanesthetic period.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate sevoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic for thoracotomy in horses.

Animals—18 horses between 2 and 15 years old.

Procedure—4 horses were used to develop surgical techniques and were euthanatized at the end of the procedure. The remaining 14 horses were selected, because they had an episode of bleeding from their lungs during strenuous exercise. General anesthesia was induced with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight, IV) followed by ketamine (2.0 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen delivered via a circle anesthetic breathing circuit. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at approximately 45 mm Hg. Neuromuscular blocking drugs (succinylcholine or atracurium) were administered to eliminate spontaneous breathing efforts and to facilitate surgery. Cardiovascular performance was monitored and supported as indicated.

Results—2 of the 14 horses not euthanatized died as a result of ventricular fibrillation. Mean (± SD) duration of anesthesia was 304.9 ± 64.1 minutes for horses that survived and 216.7 ± 85.5 minutes for horses that were euthanatized or died. Our subjective opinion was that sevoflurane afforded good control of anesthetic depth during induction, maintenance, and recovery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of sevoflurane together with neuromuscular blocking drugs provides stable and easily controllable anesthetic management of horses for elective thoracotomy and cardiac manipulation. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1430–1437)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research