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Objective—To determine whether pigs can be infected with strains of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana (VSV-I) isolated during recent vesicular stomatitis outbreaks that primarily involved horses in the western United States and determine the potential for these viruses to be transmitted by contact.
Procedure—Pigs were challenged with VSV-NJ or VSV-I from the 1995 and 1997 outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis in the western United States, respectively, or with VSV-NJ (OS) associated with vesicular stomatitis in feral pigs on Ossabaw Island, Ga. Pigs (3/group) were inoculated with each virus via 3 routes and evaluated for viral shedding, seroconversion, and the development of vesicular lesions. In another experiment, the potential for contact transmission of each virus from experimentally infected to naïve pigs was evaluated.
Results—Infection of pigs was achieved for all 3 viruses as determined by virus isolation and detection of seroconversion. In inoculated pigs, all 3 viruses were isolated from multiple swab samples at concentrations sufficient to infect other pigs. However, compared with results obtained with the 2 VSV-NJ strains, viral titers associated with VSV-I were low and the duration of virus shedding was reduced. Results from the contact transmission trials were consistent with these results; virus transmission was detected most frequently with the VSV-NJ strains.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pigs can be infected with VSV-NJ and VSV-I. Differences in the extent of viral shedding and potential for contact transmission were apparent between serotypes but not between the VSV-NJ strains investigated. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1233–1239)
Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach position and strength of the adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall.
Animals—8 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus. Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a longitudinal incision was made through the serosa and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery, positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying, and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1 month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion was tested.
Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic gastropexy technique described in the present study could be performed quickly and easily by an experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall, and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)
Objective—To determine how viral shedding and development or lack of clinical disease relate to contact transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) in pigs and determine whether pigs infected by contact could infect other pigs by contact.
Procedure—Serologically naive pigs were housed in direct contact with pigs that were experimentally inoculated with VSV-NJ via ID inoculation of the apex of the snout, application to a scarified area of the oral mucosa, application to intact oral mucosa, or ID inoculation of the ear. In a second experiment, pigs infected with VSV-NJ by contact were moved and housed with additional naive pigs. Pigs were monitored and sampled daily for clinical disease and virus isolation and were serologically tested before and after infection or contact.
Results—Contact transmission developed only when vesicular lesions were evident. Transmission developed rapidly; contact pigs shed virus as early as 1 day after contact. In pens in which contact transmission was detected, 2 of 3 or 3 of 3 contact pigs were infected.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transmission was lesion-dependent; however, vesicular lesions often were subtle with few or no clinical signs of infection. Contact transmission was efficient, with resulting infections ranging from subclinical (detected only by seroconversion) to clinical (development of vesicular lesions). Long-term maintenance of VSV-NJ via contact transmission alone appears unlikely. Pigs represent an efficient large-animal system for further study of VSV-NJ pathogenesis and transmission. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:516–520)
Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique for cystopexy in dogs.
Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored daily for 30 days after surgery.
Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic (leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry) and contrast radiographic studies performed 30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed at the same time as the cystopexy.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy to perform, and not associated with urinary tract infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1226–1231).