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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare results for initial body-mounted inertial sensor (BMIS) measurement of lameness in equids trotting in a straight line with definitive findings after full lameness evaluation.

ANIMALS

1,224 equids.

PROCEDURES

Lameness measured with BMIS equipment while trotting in a straight line was classified into categories of none, forelimb only, hind limb only, and 8 patterns of combined forelimb and hind limb lameness (CFHL). Definitive findings after full lameness evaluation were established in most horses and classified into types (no lameness, forelimb- or hind limb–only lameness, CFHL, or lameness not localized to the limbs). Observed proportions of lameness type in equids with definitive findings for each initial BMIS-assessed category were compared with hypothetical expected proportions through χ2 goodness-of-fit analysis.

RESULTS

The most common initial BMIS-assessed lameness category was CFHL (693/1,224 [56.6%]), but this was the least common definitive finding (94/ 862 [10.9%]). The observed frequency of no lameness after full lameness evaluation was greater than expected only when initial BMIS measurements indicated no lameness. The observed frequency of forelimb-only lameness was greater than expected when initially measured as forelimb-only lameness and for CFHL categories consistent with the diagonal movement principle of compensatory lameness. Observed frequency of hind limb–only lameness was greater than expected when initially measured as hind limb–only lameness and for CFHL categories consistent with the sagittal movement principle of compensatory lameness. Equids initially assessed as having no lameness had the highest (103/112 [92%]) and those assessed as CFHL pattern 7 (forelimb with contralateral hind limb impact-only lameness) had the lowest (36/66 [55%]) rates of definitive findings.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In equids, results of initial straight-line trotting evaluations with a BMIS system did not necessarily match definitive findings but may be useful in planning the remaining lameness evaluation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether horses with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infections that were examined at a veterinary medical teaching hospital between July 1, 1992, and June 30, 1994 had patterns of temporal or spatial clustering.

Animals

134 case and 800 control horses randomly selected from all non-case horses admitted during the study period.

Procedures

Admission date and geographic location were determined. Scan, Cuzick & Edwards’, and Knox tests were applied to determine whether case horses had patterns of temporal or spatial clustering.

Results

For all windows ≥ 3 days (134 case horses) and ≥ 7 days (subset of 69 case horses), results of the Scan test were significant. Results of Cuzick & Edwards’ test were significant for all data sets. A significant spatial cluster of case horses was observed for October, November, and December 1992. Results of the Knox test were significant for temporal intervals between 7 and 56 days and spatial intervals between 4.3 and 6.5 km. Higher Knox(x) proportions were observed for temporal intervals of 0 to 7, 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 29 to 35 days.

Conclusions

Significant spatial and temporal clustering of horses with C pseudotuberculosis infection was detected.

Clinical Relevance

Analysis of the results strongly indicates that this disease is directly or indirectly (ie, short distance and time) transmitted. In addition, data analyses indicated an incubation period of 3 to 4 weeks. The disease could be transmitted through horse-to-horse contact or from infected to susceptible horses via insects, other vectors, or contaminated soil. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:284–291)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the distribution of mepivacaine hydrochloride after distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint injection in horses.

Design

Prospective, uncontrolled study.

Animals

10 adult horses.

Procedure

30 minutes before euthanasia, 8 ml of 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride was injected into the dorsal pouch of a forelimb DIP joint. Synovial tissue from the DIP joint and podotrochlear (navicular) bursa and bone tissue from the medullary cavity of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone were taken from both forelimbs immediately after death. All synovial and bone specimens were analyzed for tissue concentration of mepivacaine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Synovial tissue and bone specimen concentrations from the injected forelimb were compared with corresponding specimens from the noninjected forelimb. All synovial tissue and bone specimen concentrations were compared with an estimated effective tissue concentration of mepivacaine (0.3 µg/mg) for local anesthesia.

Results

Specimen concentrations of mepivacaine from the injected forelimb were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those in the corresponding tissues of the contralateral noninjected forelimb. All DIP joint and navicular bursa synovial tissue specimens from the injected forelimb had greater than the estimated effective tissue concentration of mepivacaine for local anesthesia. Of the 10 navicular bone specimens from the injected forelimb, 4 were higher and 2 were within 20% of the estimated effective tissue concentration of mepivacaine for local anesthesia.

Conclusions

Mepivacaine hydrochloride deposited into the DIP joint should anesthetize pain arising from navicular bursa synovia and may decrease pain arising from the medullary cavity of the navicular bone.

Clinical Relevance

DIP joint injection of mepivacaine hydrochloride is not specific for DIP joint pain. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:422–426)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Suspensory ligaments (sl) from 32 Thoroughbreds and 32 Standardbreds were collected to evaluate the variation in muscle content with respect to age, breed, sex, limb, and use. Six transverse sections, each 3 to 5 mm thick, were obtained from each sl. Four sections were taken from the body of the sl and 1 from the midportion of each branch. Sections were stained with van Gieson picric acid-fuchsin solution, then photographed, and black-and-white slides were made from the processed negatives. The transverse-sectional area of the sl and tbe contained muscle were determined by use of a computer with a color monitor and a digitizing device with its associated software. The percentage of muscle was then calculated for each section, for the entire ligament, and for each horse. Results were analyzed by multiple-regression analysis and Duncan multiple-range test, using the General Linear Model of SAS. Standardbreds had 40% more muscle in their sl than did Thoroughbreds. There was no significant difference in the percentage of sl muscle among sex, age, use, individual limb, or forelimb vs hind limb. For Standardbred horses, females had significantly greater muscle area content than intact males. Also, hind limb muscle area content was significantly greater than forelimb muscle content. Thoroughbred horses between 2 and 10 years of age not in training had significantly more muscle content than horses of the same age not in training. The reasons for these differences remain unclear.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate risk of exposure and age at first exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi and time to maternal antibody decay in foals.

Animals—484 Thoroughbred and Warmblood foals from 4 farms in California.

Procedure—Serum was collected before and after colostrum ingestion and at 3-month intervals thereafter. Samples were tested by use of the indirect fluorescent antibody test; cutoff titers were ≥ 40 and ≥ 160 for S neurona and N hughesi, respectively.

Results—Risk of exposure to S neurona and N hughesi during the study were 8.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Annual rate of exposure was 3.1% for S neurona and 1.7% for N hughesi. There was a significant difference in the risk of exposure to S neurona among farms but not in the risk of exposure to N hughesi. Median age at first exposure was 1.2 years for S neurona and 0.8 years for N hughesi. Highest prevalence of antibodies against S neurona and N hughesi was 6% and 2.1%, respectively, at a mean age of 1.7 and 1.4 years, respectively. Median time to maternal antibody decay was 96 days for S neurona and 91 days for N hughesi. There were no clinical cases of equine protozoal myeloenchaphlitis (EPM).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to S neurona and N hughesi was low in foals between birth and 2.5 years of age. Maternally acquired antibodies may cause false-positive results for 3 or 4 months after birth, and EPM was a rare clinical disease in horses ≤ 2.5 years of age. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1047–1052)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare data obtained with an inertial sensor system with results of subjective lameness examinations performed by 3 experienced equine veterinarians for evaluation of lameness in horses.

Animals—106 horses.

Procedures—Horses were evaluated for lameness with a body-mounted inertial sensor system during trotting in a straight line and via subjective evaluation by 3 experienced equine practitioners who performed complete lameness examinations including lunging in a circle and limb flexion tests. Agreement among evaluators regarding results of subjective evaluations and correlations and agreements between various inertial sensor measures and results of subjective lameness evaluations were determined via calculation of Fleiss’ κ statistic, regression analysis, and calculation of 95% prediction intervals.

Results—Evaluators agreed on classification of horses into 3 mutually exclusive lameness categories (right limb lameness severity greater than left limb lameness severity, left limb lameness severity greater than right limb lameness severity, or equal right and left limb lameness severity) for 58.8% (κ = 0.37) and 54.7% (κ = 0.31) of horses for forelimb and hind limb lameness, respectively. All inertial sensor measures for forelimb and hind limb lameness were positively and significantly correlated with results of subjective evaluations. Agreement between inertial sensors measures and results of subjective evaluations was fair to moderate for forelimb lameness and slight to fair for hind limb lameness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of lameness evaluation of horses with an inertial sensor system and via subjective lameness examinations were significantly correlated but did not have strong agreement. Inertial sensor-based evaluation may augment but not replace subjective lameness examination of horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research