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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 5-year-old 11.5-kg (25.3-lb) castrated male Boston Terrier (dog 1), an 8-year-old 27.8-kg (61.2-lb) castrated male Boxer (dog 2), and a 10.5-year-old 15.9-kg (35.0-lb) spayed female Pembroke Welsh Corgi (dog 3) were evaluated because of severe, gross hematuria and suspected idiopathic renal hematuria.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

All 3 dogs had hematuria, anemia, blood clots in their urinary bladders, and unremarkable findings on coagulation and mucosal bleeding time assessments. With cystourethroscopy, lower urinary tract hemorrhage originating from a small lesion in the urinary bladder (n = 2) or urethra (1) and normal-appearing yellow urine jetting from both ureterovesicular junctions were visualized in each dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Cystoscopically guided surgical resection of a hemorrhagic lesion of the urinary bladder was performed on dog 1, and histologic evaluation of the resected tissue confirmed urinary bladder telangiectasia. Dogs 2 and 3 each underwent cystourethroscopically guided laser ablation of a hemorrhagic lesion (presumptively diagnosed as hemangioma, angioma, or telangiectasia) in the urinary bladder (dog 2) or urethra (dog 3). The longest follow-up duration was 7 years, and none of the 3 dogs had subsequent recurrence of gross hematuria.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that cystourethroscopy should be considered part of the diagnostic plan for hematuria in dogs before pursuing major surgical treatment or when results of conventional diagnostic procedures do not indicate the underlying cause. In addition, histologic results for dog 1 indicated urinary bladder telangiectasia, previously an unreported cause of severe, chronic lower urinary tract hematuria in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following endoluminal stent placement for treatment of tracheal collapse (TC) in dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested observational study.

ANIMALS 75 dogs that underwent endoluminal placement of a self-expanding metallic stent to treat TC between September 2009 and August 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on dog characteristics, clinical signs, TC type, diagnostic test results, peri- and postoperative complications, and outcomes. Complication rates and survival times and rates were compared between various groups.

RESULTS The 75 dogs received 119 stents (56% [42/75] received 1 stent and 44% [33/75] received ≥ 2 stents). Thirty-eight (51%) dogs had a malformation type of TC, and 37 (49%) had the traditional type. Ninety-three percent (70/75) of dogs survived to hospital discharge. Median survival time was 1,005 days. Improvement in goose-honking or raspy breathing (89% [42/47]) and dyspnea (84% [43/51]) was reported at final follow-up examination. Major complications requiring additional stent placement procedures occurred in 47% (33/70) of dogs over the follow-up period; stent fracture and tissue ingrowth were the most common types. Male dogs and younger dogs had a significantly longer survival time than other dogs. Mainstem bronchial collapse at the time of stent placement had no significant association with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endoluminal stent placement provided a high survival rate for dogs with TC, even those with severe clinical signs. This information, as well as the information on potential complications, should be useful for advising owners of affected dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate use of balloon-expandable and self-expanding metallic stents in management of malignant urethral obstructions in dogs.

Design—Original study.

Animals—12 dogs with malignant urethral obstructions.

Procedures—The extent and location of urethral obstructions and the diameter of adjacent unaffected luminal segments were determined by use of fluoroscopically guided wires and measuring catheters. Stents were chosen to extend approximately 1 cm proximal and distal to the obstruction. Stent diameters were chosen to be approximately 10% greater than the diameter of healthy portions of the urethra to prevent displacement. Stents were placed in the urethra under fluoroscopic guidance to restore luminal patency.

Results—3 dogs received balloon-expandable metallic stents, and 9 dogs received self-expanding metallic stents. The placement procedures were rapid, safe, and effective at restoring luminal patency and were not associated with major complications. Complications included recurrent urethral obstruction secondary to blood clot formation and urethral edema in 1 dog and stent dislodgement into the urinary bladder in 1 dog. All dogs were able to urinate immediately after the procedure. Nine dogs (3/4 females and 6/8 males) were continent or mildly incontinent after stent placement. Of the remaining 3 dogs, 2 developed severe incontinence and 1 had an atonic bladder. Seven dogs were considered to have good to excellent outcome, 3 had fair outcome, and 2 had poor outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transurethral placement of metallic stents was a safe and effective palliative treatment option for dogs with malignant urethral obstructions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the outcome following urethral stent placement for the palliative treatment of obstructive carcinoma of the urethra in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—42 dogs with obstructive carcinoma of the urethra.

Procedures—Medical records for dogs in which a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) was used for the treatment of obstructive carcinoma of the urethra were reviewed. Signalment, diagnostic findings, clinical signs before and after SEMS placement, and patient outcome were analyzed. Fluoroscopic images were evaluated to determine the effects of stent size, obstruction length, tumor length, and urethral length and width on the incidence of incontinence or stranguria.

Results—Resolution of urinary tract obstruction was achieved in 41 of 42 (97.6%) dogs. After SEMS placement, 6 of 23 male and 5 of 19 female dogs developed severe incontinence, and 1 of 23 male and 1 of 17 female dogs developed stranguria. Stent length, diameter, and location were not associated with incidence of incontinence or stranguria. Median survival time after SEMS placement was 78 days (range, 7 to 536 days). Treatment with NSAIDs before and chemotherapeutics after SEMS placement increased median survival time to 251 days (range, 8 to 536 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urethral SEMS placement was an effective palliative treatment for dogs with obstructive carcinoma of the urethra; however, severe incontinence subsequently developed in 11 of 42 (26%) treated dogs. Adjunctive treatment of affected dogs with NSAIDs and chemotherapeutics significantly increased the median survival time.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the procedure and clinical usefulness of locking-loop pigtail nephrostomy catheter (PNC) placement in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—16 cats (18 kidneys) and 4 dogs (4 kidneys) that underwent PNC placement.

Procedures—Medical records of patients that underwent PNC placement were reviewed. The PNCs were placed percutaneously with ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance or via a ventral midline laparotomy with fluoroscopic guidance. Either a modified Seldinger technique or a 1-stab trocar introduction technique was used for PNC placement. Preoperative renal pelvic size, postoperative renal pelvic decompression, catheter patency, serum biochemical changes, and results of microbial culture of urine samples were reviewed. Length of time the catheter was in place, reason and method for catheter removal, complications, and clinical outcomes were noted.

Results—Reasons for PNC placement were ureterolithiasis (15 kidneys), ureteral stricture (3), malignant obstruction (2), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (2). Seven of 22 catheters were placed percutaneously, and 15 were placed via a ventral midline laparotomy. Catheters were either size 5F (n = 17) or 6F (5). The PNCs remained indwelling for a median of 7 days (range, 1 to 28 days). Catheter-associated complications included urine leakage (n = 1) and accidental dislodgement by the patient at home (1). All catheters performed successfully by providing temporary urine diversion and drainage for successful renal pelvis decompression.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of locking-loop PNCs was safe, effective, and well tolerated in dogs and cats for temporary urine diversion to achieve renal pelvis decompression.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—3 dogs were examined because of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), which is an obstruction of venous blood flow located between the liver and the junction of the caudal vena cava and right atrium. Two dogs had confirmed neoplastic obstructions, and the other dog had a suspected neoplastic obstruction of the hepatic veins and caudal vena cava.

Clinical Findings—All dogs had similar clinical signs of weight gain, lethargy, and ascites that did not respond to medical treatments, and 2 dogs had pitting edema of the hind limbs. Ultrasonography revealed a presumptive venous obstruction, which was confirmed by use of computed tomography.

Treatment and Outcome—Each dog was anesthetized. By use of fluoroscopic guidance, endovascular stents were placed within the left hepatic vein and caudal vena cava in 2 dogs, and a single stent was placed within the left hepatic vein extending into the caudal vena cava of the third dog. After stent placement, venous pressure in the left hepatic vein decreased. Resolution of clinical signs was dramatic in all 3 dogs (survival time ranged from 7 to 20 months), with only mild complications in 1 dog.

Clinical Relevance—Endovascular stents may be an appropriate palliative treatment for dogs with clinical signs attributable to BCS.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment, complications, and outcome of dogs and cats treated surgically for major abdominal evisceration.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—8 dogs and 4 cats.

Procedures—Medical records from January 1998 through March 2008 were reviewed to identify animals that underwent surgery for major abdominal evisceration. Data regarding cause of evisceration, signalment, physiologic variables, and hematologic variables were collected. Details of treatment, duration of hospitalization, and outcome were recorded. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of signalment, physiologic variables, and hematologic variables on the number of days of hospitalization.

Results—Major abdominal evisceration was secondary to a traumatic event in 4 animals and to postsurgical dehiscence in 8 animals. All animals had evisceration of the intestines and gross contamination with dirt, leaves, or litter. Two animals eviscerated the spleen, and 1 animal had a perforated colon and was leaking feces into the peritoneal cavity. All animals underwent exploratory abdominal surgery. Surgical procedures performed included resection of compromised intestine, body wall repair, diaphragmatic hernia repair, nephrectomy, splenectomy, and primary colonic repair. All animals survived to discharge from the hospital. Median duration of hospitalization was 4 days (range, 1 to 7 days). Factors associated with an increase in duration of hospitalization included evisceration secondary to trauma, high lactate concentration at time of admission, and small body size.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite the dramatic appearance of major abdominal evisceration in cats and dogs, prompt and aggressive medical and surgical intervention can provide a favorable outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate short- and long-term outcome following endovascular treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—100 dogs.

Procedures—All patients had angiographic evaluation with or without endovascular shunt attenuation. The medical records were reviewed for pertinent data, complications, outcome, and survival time.

Results—95 dogs with congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts received 111 procedures (83% [79/95] had 1 treatment, and 17% [16/95] had > 1 treatment; 5 dogs had no treatment because of excessive portal venous pressure–central venous pressure gradients). Angiography identified 38 right, 33 left, and 19 central divisional single shunts (n = 90) and 10 complex or multiple shunts. Partial shunt attenuation was performed in 92 dogs by means of caval stent placement and insertion of thrombogenic coils within the shunt, and 3 had complete acute shunt occlusion. Major intraoperative complications (3/111 [3%]) included temporary severe portal hypertension in 2 dogs and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in 1 dog. Major postoperative (< 1 week after surgery) complications (14/111 [13%]) included seizures or hepatoencephalopathy (7/111 [6%]), cardiac arrest (2/111 [2%]), jugular site bleeding (2/111 [2%]), pneumonia (1/111 [1%]), suspected portal hypertension (1/111 [1%]), and acute death (1/111 [1%]). Median follow-up time was 958 days (range, 0 to 3,411 days). Median survival time for treated dogs was 2,204 days (range, 0 to 3,411 days). Outcome was considered excellent (57/86 [66%]) or fair (13/86 [15%]) in 70 of 86 (81%) treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that endovascular treatment of intrahepatic shunts in dogs may result in lower morbidity and mortality rates, with similar success rates, compared with previously reported outcomes for open surgical procedures. Gastrointestinal ulceration was a common finding among this population of dogs, and lifelong gastroprotectant medications are now recommended.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the use of transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy for the retrieval of cystic and urethral calculi and to report the outcome in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—23 dogs and 4 cats.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, procedure time, stone number, stone location, pre- and postoperative radiographs, procedure-associated complications, and short-term outcome. A ventral midline approach was made into the abdomen over the urinary bladder apex. A screw cannula was inserted at the bladder apex for normograde rigid and flexible cystourethroscopy. All uroliths were removed via a stone basket device and retrograde flushing and suction. Long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery) information was obtained by telephone or e-mail contact with owners.

Results—27 animals with cystic and urethral calculi were included. Median patient weight was 8.3 kg (18.3 lb; range, 1.8 to 42.6 kg [4.0 to 93.7 lb]). Urolith number ranged from 1 to > 35 (median, 7). Urolith size ranged from < 1 to 30 mm (median, 4.5 mm). Fifteen of the 27 animals had a previous cystotomy (range, 1 to 5 procedures). Median procedure time was 66 minutes (range, 50 to 80 minutes). All patients were discharged within 24 hours. No postoperative complications were reported at the time of suture removal. At the time of long-term follow-up, the 22 clients that could be contacted were satisfied with the procedure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transvesicular percutaneous cystolithotomy may decrease the need for urethrotomy, serial transurethral endoscopic procedures, and abdominal insufflation associated with other minimally invasive interventions currently available. This procedure also provided excellent visualization for bladder and urethral luminal inspection.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinicopathologic features, surgical management, complications, and long-term outcome associated with diseases of the extrahepatic portion of the biliary tract treated via choledochal stent placement in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—13 dogs.

Procedure—Data were obtained from medical records, and follow-up information was obtained via reexamination or telephone interview with owners or referring veterinarians.

Results—10 dogs had extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO), 6 as a result of pancreatitis. Two dogs had rupture of the common bile duct associated with cholelithiasis. In 1 dog, a stent was placed prophylactically after gastroduodenostomy was performed for a perforated duodenal ulcer. Nine of 13 dogs survived the perioperative period and were discharged. No recurrence of EHBO or other complications developed in the discharged dogs while the stents were in place. Median follow-up period from surgery to last owner contact was 13.3 months. In 1 dog, the stent was removed endoscopically 10 months after surgery and EHBO recurred 9 months after stent removal because of cholangitis. In 4 of 5 dogs that were discharged from the hospital, in which the fate of the stent could be confirmed and the stent was secured to the duodenal wall with absorbable suture materials, the stents were passed in the feces 1 to 11 months after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Choledochal tube stenting is an effective method of decompression of the extrahepatic portion of the biliary tract in dogs and provides a less complex alternative to traditional cholecystoenterostomy techniques in select cases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association