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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for use in predicting subjective diagnostic scores of lameness with variables determined from ground reaction force (GRF) data.

Animals—21 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—The left cranial cruciate ligament of each dog was transected to induce osteoarthritis of the stifle joint as part of another study. Lameness scores were assigned and GRF data were collected 2 times before and 5 times after ligament transection. Inputs and the output for each ANN were GRF variables and a lameness score, respectively. The ANNs were developed by use of data from 14 dogs and evaluated by use of data for the remaining 7 dogs (ie, dogs not used in model development).

Results—ANN models developed with 2 preferred input variables had an overall accuracy ranging from 96% to 99% for 2 data configurations (data configuration 1 contained patterns or observations for 7 dogs, whereas data configuration 2 contained patterns or observations for 7 other dogs). When additional variables were added to the models, the highest overall accuracy ranged from 97% to 100%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ANNs provided a method for processing GRF data of dogs to accurately predict subjective diagnostic scores of lameness. Processing of GRF data via ANNs could result in a more precise evaluation of surgical and pharmacological intervention by detecting subtle lameness that could have been missed by visual analysis of GRF curves.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify and critically evaluate the quality of evidence of the most commonly used pharmacologic, nutraceutical, and purported slow-acting drugs of osteoarthritis for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs by use of the FDA's evidence-based medicine scoring system.

Design—Systematic review.

Sample Population—16 clinical trials.

Procedures—A broad bibliographic search was performed prior to May 2006. Inclusion criteria focused on prospective trials evaluating commonly used medical treatment interventions for the management of osteoarthritis in dogs and published in peer-reviewed journals. The analysis consisted of the following: study design rating, quality factor rating, quantity rating, consistency rating, relevance to disease risk reduction rating, and cumulative strength of evidence ranking.

Results—4 trials evaluating meloxicam were rated as type I.Three trials evaluating carprofen were rated as type I, and 2 trials were rated as type III. One trial evaluating each of the following agents was rated as type 1: etodolac; P54FP; polysulfated glycosaminoglycan; and a combination of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and manganese ascorbate. Two trials evaluating pentosan polysulphate and 2 trails evaluating green-lipped mussels were rated as type I. One trial evaluating hyaluronan was rated as type III.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A high level of comfort exists for meloxicam that the claimed relationship is scientifically valid and that its use is clinically efficacious for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.A moderate level of comfort exists for carprofen; etodolac; pentosan polysulphate; green-lipped mussels; P54FP; polysulfated glycosaminoglycans; and a combination of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and manganese ascorbate. An extremely low level of comfort exists for hyaluronan.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Present data describe the rates of vertical loading and unloading generated by clinically normal dogs in a trotting gait. Forward velocity was found to influence maximal rates of limb loading and unloading in forelimbs and hind limbs. The rates increased as the velocity of the dog/handler increased. The position of maximal limb loading during the stance phase was independent of velocity in the forelimbs, but in the hind limbs, as velocity increased, the position of maximal unloading occurred earlier in the stance phase.

Within velocity groups, the forelimbs had greater rates of vertical loading and unloading than did hind limbs. The position at which maximal loading occurred was earlier in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. There was a difference in the position of maximal unloading between forelimbs and hind limbs, with the forelimbs unloading earlier in the stance phase. Difference between paired forelimbs or paired hind limbs was not found for any measurement within any group.

Calculation of loading and unloading rates provides another method of examining functional limb loading in dogs. This method of analysis can be adapted to any animal gaited across a force platform in which single limb strides can be recorded. Calculations can also be done in any axis of measurement. Data indicated loading and unloading rates to be consistent, and easily determined. Use of data generated from rates of limb loading can be classified into 2 areas: documentation of acceptance of load by the limb, and indirect measurement of functional stresses placed on bones of the appendicular skeleton.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate effects of the use of stance time or velocity as control variables on ground reaction forces in lame dogs.

Animals

12 dogs with pelvic osteotomies.

Procedure

Data for ground reaction forces were obtained preoperatively and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks postoperatively, using velocity and stance time as control variables. Ground reaction forces obtained were compared between the 2 methods of data collection, as were velocities and stance times of the trials.

Results

Significant differences in ground reaction forces were not found between the use of velocity or stance time as a control variable at any time. Also, significant differences in stance times or velocities were not found between the 2 methods of data collection. Greatest variation in stance time and velocity was found during periods of greatest lameness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Use of stance time as a control variable in force plate analysis does not lead to significantly different results from use of velocity as a control variable, indicating that either method may be used in force plate analysis of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:814–819)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of various cyclooxygenase selectivities on hemostasis and prostaglandin expression in dogs.

Animals—8 client-owned dogs with clinical signs of osteoarthritis.

Procedures—Dogs received aspirin (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), carprofen (4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), and meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 10 days each, with an interval of at least 14 days between treatments. On days 0 and 10, blood was collected for platelet aggregation assays, thrombelastography, and measurement of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated prostaglandin E2, platelet thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and free serum TXB2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F (PGF)-1α concentrations.

Results—Platelet aggregation decreased after treatment with aspirin and carprofen, whereas significant changes from baseline were not detected for the other drugs tested. Thrombelastograms obtained after treatment with carprofen revealed decreased maximum amplitude and α-angle, suggesting hypocoagulability. Maximum amplitude and coagulation index increased after treatment with deracoxib. Plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 decreased after treatment with carprofen or deracoxib, and platelet TXB2 production increased after treatment with aspirin. Serum concentrations of the prostacyclin metabolite 6-keto-PGF-1α did not change significantly after treatment with any of the drugs, although the ratio of free TXB2 to 6-keto-PGF-1α decreased slightly after treatment with carprofen and increased slightly after treatment with deracoxib.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At the dosages tested, treatment with meloxicam affected platelet function minimally in dogs with osteoarthritis. Treatment with carprofen decreased clot strength and platelet aggregation. Clot strength was increased after treatment with deracoxib.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the ability of preemptive administration of a proprietary neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist to attenuate limb dysfunction associated with monosodium urate–induced synovitis in the stifle joints of dogs.

Animals—16 clinically normal adult mixed-breed dogs (8 males and 8 females).

Procedures—A crossover study was conducted in 2 phases. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups (8 dogs/group) and orally administered an NK1 receptor antagonist (3 mg/kg) or a control substance once daily for 4 days. Synovitis was then induced in the left stifle joint by intra-articular injection of monosodium urate. Investigators were not aware of treatment group assignments. Dogs were evaluated by use of subjective lameness scores during standing, walking, and trotting and by use of ground reaction force data 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours after urate injection. After a 21-day washout period, the experiment was repeated with each dog administered the other treatment and injected with monosodium urate in the contralateral stifle joint.

Results—No significant differences were detected between the NK1 receptor antagonist and control treatments with regard to peak vertical force, vertical impulse area, or subjective evaluations of lameness during standing, walking, or trotting, except during walking 24 hours after monosodium urate injection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preemptive administration of an NK1 receptor antagonist failed to significantly improve subjective or objective outcome measures in dogs with monosodium urate–induced synovitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a method for experimental induction of osteoarthritis in the hip joints of dogs.

Animals—12 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—A unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy was performed. In 6 dogs, the iliac osteotomy was repaired with 45° of internal rotation, reducing coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. In the other 6 dogs, the fragments were repaired in anatomic alignment. Radiography, force plate evaluations, and subjective lameness evaluations were performed before and after surgery. Dogs were euthanatized 7 months after surgery, and samples of cartilage and joint capsule were examined histologically.

Results—Subjective lameness scores, radiographic appearance of the hip joints, and Norberg angles were not significantly different between groups; however, force plate evaluations did reveal significant differences in vertical ground reaction forces. Femoral head coverage was significantly decreased with rotation of the acetabulum. Mild inflammatory changes were discernible in the joint capsule and articular cartilage of some dogs in both groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that 45° internal rotation of the acetabulum does not consistently induce biologically important osteoarthritic changes in the hip joints of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:484–491)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare preoperative administration of meloxicam and butorphanol to perioperative administration of butorphanol alone for control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs scheduled for surgical repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Procedure—Group-1 dogs received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) just prior to surgery. Group-2 dogs received butorphanol just prior to surgery (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and at incision closure (0.1 mg/kg, IV). Pain assessment began 1 to 2 hours before surgery and from extubation until 24 hours after surgery by obtaining the following measurements: the visual analog scale (VAS) score, cumulative pain score (CPS), adjusted cumulative pain score, modified cumulative pain score, and the adjusted modified cumulative pain score (AMCPS). Serum cortisol concentration was measured between 12 to 24 and between 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery, and at 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in CPS or VAS score. At 8, 9, 10, and 11 hours after extubation, meloxicambutorphanol- treated dogs had a significantly lower AMCPS, compared with butorphanol-alone-treated dogs. Total serum cortisol concentration (area under the curve) during the measurement period was significantly lower in meloxicam-butorphanol-treated dogs, compared with butorphanol-alone treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative single dose administration of meloxicam-butorphanol is equivalent to or slightly better than the administration of 2 perioperative doses of butorphanol for the control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1557–1563)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research